In electromagnetism, electric flux is the flux of the electric field. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual surface. The electric flux through a small area is given by
(the electric field, E, multiplied by the component of area perpendicular to the field). The electric flux over a surface S is therefore given by the surface integral:
where E is the electric field and dA is a differential area on the closed surface with an outward facing surface normal defining its direction.