Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

Error control

Error control


The actual output of the amplifier is not just dependent on the content of the modulated PWM signal. The power supply voltage directly amplitude-modulates the output voltage, dead time errors make the output impedance non-linear and the output filter has a strongly load-dependent frequency response. An effective way to combat errors, regardless of their source, is negative feedback. A feedback loop including the output stage can be made using a simple integrator. To include the output filter, a PID controller is used, sometimes with additional integrating terms. The need to feed the actual output signal back into the modulator makes the direct generation of PWM from a SPDIF source unattractive.[6] Mitigating the same issues in an amplifier without feedback requires addressing each separately at the source. Power supply modulation can be partially canceled by measuring the supply voltage to adjust signal gain before calculating the PWM[7] and distortion can be reduced by switching faster. The output impedance cannot be controlled other than through feedback.

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Almajmaah University

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Wave Power

World's Simplest Electric Train



PeltierModule-JouleThief-Fridge

homemade Aircondition

Salt water battery


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