Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

Multi-level caches

Another issue is the fundamental tradeoff between cache latency and hit rate. Larger caches have better hit rates but longer latency. To address this tradeoff, many computers use multiple levels of cache, with small fast caches backed up by larger slower caches.

Multi-level caches generally operate by checking the smallest level 1 (L1) cache first; if it hits, the processor proceeds at high speed. If the smaller cache misses, the next larger cache (L2) is checked, and so on, before external memory is checked.

As the latency difference between main memory and the fastest cache has become larger, some processors have begun to utilize as many as three levels of on-chip cache. For example, the Alpha 21164 (1995) had 1 to 64MB off-chip L3 cache; the IBM POWER4 (2001) had off-chip L3 caches of 32MB per processor, shared among several processors; the Itanium 2 (2003) had a 6 MB unified level 3 (L3) cache on-die; the Itanium 2 (2003) MX 2 Module incorporates two Itanium2 processors along with a shared 64 MB L4 cache on a MCM that was pin compatible with a Madison processor; Intel's Xeon MP product code-named "Tulsa" (2006) features 16 MB of on-die L3 cache shared between two processor cores; the AMD Phenom II (2008) has up to 6 MB on-die unified L3 cache; and the Intel Core i7 (2008) has an 8 MB on-die unified L3 cache that is inclusive, shared by all cores. The benefits of an L3 cache depend on the application's access patterns.

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Wave Power

World's Simplest Electric Train



PeltierModule-JouleThief-Fridge

homemade Aircondition

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