Nonlinear dynamo t
The kinematic approximation becomes invalid when the magnetic field becomes strong enough to affect the fluid motions. In that case the velocity field becomes affected by the Lorentz force, and so the induction equation is no longer linear in the magnetic field. In most cases this leads to a quenching of the amplitude of the dynamo. Such dynamos are sometimes also referred to as hydromagnetic dynamos. Virtually all dynamos in astrophysics and geophysics are hydromagnetic dynamos.
Numerical models are used to simulate fully nonlinear dynamos. A minimum of 5 equations are needed. They are as follows. The induction equation, see above. Maxwell's equation:
The (sometimes) Boussinesq conservation of mass:
The (sometimes) Boussinesq conservation of momentum, also known as the Navier-Stokes equation:
Finally, a transport equation, usually of heat (sometimes of light element concentration):
where T is temperature, is the thermal diffusivity with k thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and density, and is an optional heat source. Often the pressure is the dynamic pressure, with the hydrostatic pressure and centripetal potential removed. These equations are then non-dimensionalized, introducing the non-dimensional parameters,