Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

Ocean thermal ener

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface ocean waters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.

A heat engine gives greater efficiency and power when run with a large temperature difference. In the oceans the temperature difference between surface and deep water is greatest in the tropics, although still a modest 20 to 25 °C. It is therefore in the tropics that OTEC offers the greatest possibilities.[1] OTEC has the potential to offer global amounts of energy that are 10 to 100 times greater than other ocean energy options such as wave power[citation needed]. OTEC plants can operate continuously providing a base load supply for an electrical power generation system.

The main technical challenge of OTEC is to generate significant amounts of power efficiently from small temperature differences. It is still considered an emerging technology. Early OTEC systems were of 1 to 3% thermal efficiency, well below the theoretical maximum for this temperature difference of between 6 and 7%. Current designs are expected to be closer to the maximum. The first operational system was built in Cuba in 1930 and generated 22 kW. Modern designs allow performance approaching the theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency and the largest built in 1999 by the USA generated 250 kW .

The most commonly used heat cycle for OTEC is the Rankine cycle using a low-pressure turbine. Systems may be either closed-cycle or open-cycle. Closed-cycle engines use working fluids that are typically thought of as refrigerants such as ammonia or R-134a. Open-cycle engines use vapour from the seawater itself as the working fluid.

OTEC can also supply quantities of cold water as a by-product . This can be used for air conditioning and refrigeration and the fertile deep ocean water can feed biological technologies. Another by-product is fresh water distilled from the sea.

Office Hours

Monday 10 -2

Tuesday 10-12

Thursday 11-1

My Timetable


email: a.abokhalil@mu.edu.sa


Phone: 2570


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Photovoltaic Operation

Wave Power

World's Simplest Electric Train


homemade Aircondition

Salt water battery

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