## Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

## Perfect diamagneti

Superconductors in the Meissner state exhibit perfect diamagnetism, or superdiamagnetism, meaning that the total magnetic field is very close to zero deep inside them (many penetration depths from the surface). This means that their magnetic susceptibility, $chi_{v}$ = −1. Diamagnetics are defined by the generation of a spontaneous magnetization of a material which directly opposes the direction of an applied field. However, the fundamental origins of diamagnetism in superconductors and normal materials are very different. In normal materials diamagnetism arises as a direct result of the orbital spin of electrons about the nuclei of an atom induced electromagnetically by the application of an applied field. In superconductors the illusion of perfect diamagnetism arises from persistent screening currents which flow to oppose the applied field (the meissner effect); not solely the orbital spin.

Monday 10 -2

Tuesday 10-12

Thursday 11-1

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email: a.abokhalil@mu.edu.sa

a_galal@yahoo.com

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