Pinch production a
Pinch production and types
Pinches are created in the laboratory in equipment related to nuclear fusion, such as the Z-pinch machine, and high-energy physics, such as the dense plasma focus. Pinches may also become unstable, and generate radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, x-rays and gamma rays, and also neutrons and synchrotron radiation. Types of pinches, that may differ in geometry and operating forces, include the cylindrical pinch, inverse pinch, orthogonal pinch effect, reversed field pinch, sheet pinch, screw pinch (also called stabilized Z-pinch, or θ-z pinch), theta pinch (or thetatron), toroidal pinch, ware pinch and Z-pinch.Pinches are used to generate X-rays, and the intense magnetic fields generated are used in electromagnetic forming of metals (they have been demonstrated in crushing aluminium soft drinks cans). They have applications to particle beams including particle beam weapons, and astrophysics.