Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

Type-II supercondu

In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field. This occurs above a certain critical field strength Hc1. The vortex density increases with increasing field strength. At a higher critical field Hc2, superconductivity is completely destroyed

Type-II superconductors are usually made of metal alloys or complex oxide ceramics. All high temperature superconductors are type-II superconductors. While most elemental superconductors are type-I, niobium, vanadium, and technetium are elemental type-II superconductors. Boron-doped diamond and silicon are also type-II superconductors. Metal alloy superconductors also exhibit type-II behavior (e.g. niobium-titanium and niobium-tin).

Other type-II examples are the cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials which have achieved the highest superconducting critical temperatures. These include La1.85Ba0.15CuO4, BSCCO, and YBCO (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide), which is famous as the first material to achieve superconductivity above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen.

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