Vector control, also called field-oriented control (FOC), is a variable frequency drive (VFD) control method which controls three-phase AC electric motor output by means of three controllable VFD inverter output variables:
- Voltage magnitude
- Voltage angle
FOC is a control technique used in brushless DC and AC induction motor applicationsthat was originally developed for high-performance motor applications which can operate smoothly over the full speed range, can generate full torque at zero speed, and is capable of fast acceleration and deceleration but that is becoming increasingly attractive for lower performance applications as well due to FOC's motor size, cost and power consumption reduction superiority.
Not only is FOC very common in induction motor control applications due to its traditional superiority in high-performance applications but the expectation is that it will eventually nearly universally displace single-variable scalar volts-per-Hertz (V/Hz) control.