Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

differential relay

In electrical engineering, a protective relay is an electromechanical apparatus, often with more than one coil, designed to calculate operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trip circuit breakers when a fault is detected. Unlike switching type relays with fixed and usually ill-defined operating voltage thresholds and operating times, protective relays have well-established, selectable, time/current (or other operating parameter) operating characteristics. Protection relays may use arrays of induction disks, shaded-pole magnets, operating and restraint coils, solenoid-type operators, telephone-relay contacts, and phase-shifting networks. Protection relays respond to such conditions as over-current, over-voltage, reverse power flow, over- and under- frequency. Distance relays trip for faults up to a certain distance away from a substation but not beyond that point. An important transmission line or generator unit will have cubicles dedicated to protection, with many individual electromechanical devices. The various protective functions available on a given relay are denoted by standard ANSI Device Numbers.

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