doping and synthes
The synthesis of n-type semiconductors may involve the use of vapor-phase epitaxy. In vapor-phase epitaxy, a gas containing the negative dopant is passed over the substrate wafer. In the case of n-type Gas doping, hydrogen sulfide is passed over the gallium arsenide, and sulfur is incorporated into the structure. This process is characterized by a constant concentration of sulfur on the surface. In the case of semiconductors in general, only a very thin layer of the wafer needs to be doped in order to obtain the desired electronic properties. The reaction conditions typically range from 600 to 800 °C for the n-doping with group VI elements, and the time is typically 6–12 hours depending on the temperature.