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Video-Based Learning: A Critical Analysis of The Research Published in 2003-2013 and Future Visions
Ahmed Mohamed Fahmy Yousef, Mohamed Amine Chatti, Ulrik Schroeder
Learning Technologies Research Group (Informatik 9), RWTH-Aachen University
Aachen, Germany
{Ahmed.fahmy; Schroeder}@cil.rwth-aachen.de; Chatti@informatik.rwth-aachen.de
Abstract— Video-Based Learning (VBL) has a long history in the educational design research. In the past decade, the interest in VBL has increased as a result of new forms of online education, such as flipped classrooms, and most prominently MOOCs. VBL has unique features that make it an effective Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) approach. This study critically analyzed the current research of VBL published in 2003-2013 to build a deep understanding on what are the educational benefits and effectiveness that VBL has on teaching and learning. 67 peer reviewed papers were selected in this review and categorized into four main dimensions, namely, effectiveness, teaching methods, design, and reflection. In the light of the discussion of current research in terms of these categories, we present the future vision and research opportunities of VBL that support self-organized and network learning.
Keywords-Video-Based Learning; VBL; MOOC; Blended Learning; Video Design.
I. INTRODUCTION
Video-based learning (VBL) has a long tradition as a learning method in educational classes. First experiments started during the Second World War. Soldiers were then trained with a combination of audio and film strips [12]. As a result, the static film strips helped to increase their skills while saving a lot of time as well. By the late 1960s, educational television was used as an extra tool in classrooms. Also teachers were confronted with videos of their own lessons to reflect on their teaching methods and improve their performance [63]. In the 1980s, VHS videotapes meant a quantum leap as it became much easier to use video in classrooms. But, still, learners were rather passive and could only watch the video. This changed with the rise of digital video CDs in the mid-1990s. Teachers could now add multimedia control and assessment tools by using the video on a computer. Thus, learners became much more active than before. By the 2000s, classrooms got connected to the internet and interactive digital video as well as video conferences became possible. Since then, new technologies such as smartphones and tablets in combination with social media such as YouTube have contributed to increasing social interaction and have made it easier as ever to integrate video applications in education [15][39]. In recent years, VBL publications have increased in order to discuss how VBL can facilitate learning and enhance learner’s outcome as well as teacher’s performance. Thus, there was a need to collect existing research, document the benefits of video in improving learning, and explore the design and teaching methods in VBL environments. In this study, we critically analyze the research on VBL to answer the following research questions:
1. What are the educational benefits that VBL has on teaching and learning?
2. How VBL technologies enhance students’ learning outcome?
3. How educators and researchers design VBL environments?
4. How is VBL used to improve teacher’s and learner’s reflection?
In order to answer these questions, this paper will discuss different angles of VBL. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section II is a review of the related work. Section III describes the research methodology and how we collected the research data. In Section V, we review and discuss the current research based on several dimensions. Finally, Section VI gives a summary of the main findings of this paper and highlights new research opportunities for future work.
II. RELATED WORK
This section summarizes the previous work most closely related to our study.
Tripp and Rich [77] reviewed 63 studies in order to understand the ability of teachers to reflect on their teaching through video recording. The result of this study was that teachers prefer to use video recording for reflection in collaboration with colleagues than reflecting individually. Also, teachers report that the use of a guiding framework (e.g., rubric, checklist, teaching principles) helps to focus on their reflection by focusing their attention on certain tasks.
Borgo et al., [57] conducted a study to provide an overview of the major advances in automated video analysis and investigate some techniques in the field of graphic design and visualization.
Greenberg and Zanetis [1] reported the positive impact of video broadcast and streaming in education. As a result of their study, the authors encourage teachers and educators to use interactive video training materials in classes especially with children.
Although these studies asserted that the video is a powerful tool in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and that videos enable teachers to reflect on their teaching, they do not take into account the teaching methodologies, design Copyright (c) IARIA, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-61208-328-5 112
eLmL 2014 : The Sixth International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning

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