د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book index


Contents
Chapter 1. General Introduction ............................................................................................ 1
1.1 Formative Assessment ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Summative and Formative Assessment ..................................................................... 2
1.2.2 Features of Formative Assessment ............................................................................ 2
1.2 Feedback ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.1 Feedback Provided to Students ................................................................................. 6
1.2.2 Feedback Provided to Educators ............................................................................... 9
1.3 Computers in Educational Assessment .......................................................................... 10
1.3.1 Computer-based Assessment ................................................................................... 10
1.3.2 Computer-based Reporting ..................................................................................... 11
1.4 Outline ............................................................................................................................ 12
1.4.1 Item-based Feedback Provided to Students through a Computer ........................... 12
1.4.2 Feedback Provided through a Computer to Educators ............................................ 13
1.4.3 A Comparison of three Approaches to Formative Assessment ............................... 14
Chapter 2. Effects of Feedback in a Computer-Based Assessment for Learning ............ 23
2.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 24
2.1.1 Computer-based Assessment for Learning ............................................................. 24
2.1.2 Characteristics of Feedback .................................................................................... 25
2.1.3 Feedback and Learning ........................................................................................... 27
2.1.4 Aims of the Present Study ....................................................................................... 28
2.2 Method ........................................................................................................................... 29
2.2.1 Participants .............................................................................................................. 29
2.2.2 Design ...................................................................................................................... 29
2.2.3 Instruments .............................................................................................................. 29
2.2.4 Procedure ................................................................................................................. 33
2.2.5 Data Analyses .......................................................................................................... 33
2.3 Results ............................................................................................................................ 34
2.3.1 Feedback Effects ..................................................................................................... 34
2.3.2 Time Spent Reading Feedback ................................................................................ 35
2.3.3 Student Characteristics and Perceived Test Difficulty ............................................ 36
2.3.4 Relation between Student Characteristics and Time Spent on Feedback ............... 36
2.4 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 37
Appendix 2A. Item 3 in the assessment for learning and KCR + EF .................................. 43
Appendix 2B. Item 18 in the summative assessment ........................................................... 44
Appendix 2C. Item 4 and item 6 in the assessment for learning including KCR + EF ....... 45
Chapter 3. The Effectiveness of Methods for Providing Written Feedback through a
Computer-Based Assessment for Learning: A Systematic Review ................................... 47
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 48
3.1.1 Computer-Based Assessment for Learning ............................................................. 48
3.1.2 Ways of Providing Feedback .................................................................................. 48
3.1.3 Feedback and Learning ........................................................................................... 49
3.2. Method .......................................................................................................................... 50
3.2.1 Procedure ................................................................................................................. 50
3.2.2 Databases and Search Terms ................................................................................... 50
3.2.3 Inclusion Criteria ..................................................................................................... 51
3.2.4 Selection Process ..................................................................................................... 52
3.2.5 Data Extraction and Appraisal of Studies ............................................................... 52
3.3. Results ........................................................................................................................... 52
3.3.1 Search Results ......................................................................................................... 52
3.3.2 Selection Results ..................................................................................................... 53
3.3.3 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................... 53
3.4 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 56
Appendix 3A. Search string ................................................................................................. 61
Appendix 3B. Data extraction form ..................................................................................... 62
Chapter 4. Effects of Feedback in a Computer-Based Learning Environment on
Students’ Learning Outcomes: A Meta-analysis ................................................................. 65
4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 66
4.1.1 Methods for Providing Feedback ............................................................................ 66
4.1.2 Evidence on the Effects of Feedback in Computer-Based Environments .............. 68
4.1.3 Objectives of the Present Study .............................................................................. 69
4.2 Method ........................................................................................................................... 71
4.2.1 Data Collection ........................................................................................................ 71
4.2.2 Inclusion Criteria ..................................................................................................... 71
4.2.3 Coding Procedures .................................................................................................. 72
4.2.4 Statistical Methods .................................................................................................. 73
4.3 Results ............................................................................................................................ 75
4.3.1 Results of the Selection Process .............................................................................. 75
4.3.2 Characteristics of the Selected Studies .................................................................... 75
4.3.3 Effect Sizes .............................................................................................................. 76
4.4 Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 82
Appendix 4A. Coding scheme ............................................................................................. 93
Chapter 5. Interpretation of the Score Reports from the Computer Program LOVS by
Teachers, Internal Support Teachers, and Principals ...................................................... 103
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 104
5.2. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................... 107
5.2.1 The Use of Data Feedback .................................................................................... 107
5.2.2 The Interpretation of Data Feedback ..................................................................... 108
5.2.3 Standards for Score Reports .................................................................................. 108
5.3. Method ........................................................................................................................ 109
5.3.1 Exploration and Scope Refinement ....................................................................... 109
5.3.2 Focus Groups ......................................................................................................... 110
5.3.3 Questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 111
5.4. Results ......................................................................................................................... 112
5.4.1 Focus Groups ......................................................................................................... 112
5.4.2 Questionnaire. ........................................................................................................ 113
5.5. Conclusion and Discussion ......................................................................................... 116
Chapter 6. Towards Valid Score Reports in the Computer Program LOVS: A Redesign
Study ..................................................................................................................................... 125
6.1. Introduction and Study Context .................................................................................. 126
6.1.1 The Pupil-Monitoring Computer Program LOVS ................................................ 126
6.1.2 DDDM Using LOVS Tests ................................................................................... 127
6.1.3 Interpretability as Aspect of Validity .................................................................... 127
6.1.4 The Need for Professional Development in DDDM ............................................. 128
6.1.5 Aims of the Present Study ..................................................................................... 128
6.2. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................... 129
6.3. Design Research Approach ......................................................................................... 131
6.4. Analysis and Exploration ............................................................................................ 132
6.5. Design and Construction ............................................................................................. 135
6.5.1 Initial Design ......................................................................................................... 135
6.5.2 Expert Evaluation .................................................................................................. 136
6.5.3 Focus Groups ......................................................................................................... 136
6.5.4 Proposed Design .................................................................................................... 136
6.6. Evaluation and Reflection ........................................................................................... 138
6.6.1 Questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 138
6.6.2 Focus Groups ......................................................................................................... 143
6.6.3 Consultation with Key Informants ........................................................................ 144
6.7. Conclusion and Discussion ......................................................................................... 147
Chapter 7. Data-Based Decision Making, Assessment for Learning, and Diagnostic
Testing in Formative Assessment ........................................................................................ 155
7.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 156
7.1.2 Learning Theories and the Role of Feedback ........................................................ 158
7.2 Theoretical Framework ................................................................................................ 159
7.2.1 Theoretical Underpinnings of DBDM ................................................................... 159
7.2.2 Implementation of DBDM: Aggregation Level, Assessment Methods, and
Feedback Loops .............................................................................................................. 160
7.2.3 Theoretical Underpinnings of AfL ........................................................................ 161
7.2.4 Implementation of AfL: Aggregation Level, Assessment Methods, and Feedback
Loops .............................................................................................................................. 162
7.2.5 Theoretical Underpinnings of DT ......................................................................... 163
7.2.6 Implementation of DT: Aggregation Level, Assessment Methods, and Feedback
Loops .............................................................................................................................. 163
7.3 Comparison of the Three Approaches .......................................................................... 165
7.3.1 Theoretical Underpinnings of DBDM, Afl, and DT ............................................. 165
7.3.2 Implementation of DBDM, AfL, and DT ............................................................. 166
7.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 168
Epilogue ................................................................................................................................ 175
Summary ............................................................................................................................... 183
Samenvatting ........................................................................................................................ 187
Research Valorisation: Publications and Presentations ................................................... 191
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................... 195

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