د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B7

Feedback types. Shute (2008) describes knowledge of response (KR) as a simple type
of feedback, which implies that the test taker is told whether the answer is correct or incorrect.
This type of feedback is used in behaviourist learning theory, where its main purpose was to
reinforce the correct recall of facts (Hattie & Gan, 2011; Narciss, 2008). In the past, KR was
often used as a synonym for feedback, indicating that its sole purpose is to inform the learner
about the quality of the response (Sadler, 1989). However, the research gradually became
aware that a trial-and-error procedure was not very effective in student learning because it
does not inform the learner about how to improve. Moreover, in terms of effect sizes,
Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, and Morgan (1991) concluded that ―When learners are only
told whether an answer is right or wrong, feedback has virtually no effect on achievements‖
(p. 228).
A type of feedback that is somewhat more complex is knowledge of correct response
(KCR), in which the test taker is provided with the correct response (Shute, 2008). This type
of feedback originated in cognitivism, the main purpose of which is to revise the student‘s
incorrect responses (Kulhavy & Stock, 1989).
Any feedback that is more elaborated than KR or KCR is called elaborated feedback
(EF) (Shute, 2008). In EF, the distinctions between feedback (in terms of correctives) and
instruction fades (Hattie & Timperley, 2007), because ―the process itself takes on the forms of
new instruction, instead of informing the student solely about correctness‖ (Kulhavy, 1977, p.
212). However, the degree of elaboration strongly differs in various studies, and many
variations are possible, not all of which are equally effective. An example of EF is the
explanation of the correct answer, a worked-out solution, or a reference to study material. EF
plays an important role in recent learning theories (Thurlings, Vermeulen, Bastiaens, &
Stijnen, 2013). For example, in social cultural theory, feedback often takes the form of a
prompt, which could be classified as EF when students are offered help, such as a hint that
guides the learner in the right direction. In (social) constructivism, EF typically includes
explanations of strategies or procedures that serve as toolkits in the construction of knowledge
and skills (Mory, 2004). In meta-cognitivism, EF is usually concerned with how the learner
learns, instead of what the learner learns (Brown, 1987; Stobart, 2008). These learning
theories advise that feedback should be task-related, specific, and objective-oriented
(Thurlings et al., 2013).
Feedback levels. Hattie and Timperley (2007) argued that the effectiveness of
feedback depends on the level at which the feedback is aimed. They distinguish four levels,
which are an expansion of a previously developed model by Kluger and DeNisi (1996):
 Task level. The feedback is aimed at correcting work and is mainly focussed on lowerorder
learning outcomes.
 Process level. The feedback relates to the process that was followed in order to finish
the task and to how learning can be improved. For example, an explanation is given of
why a particular answer is correct.
 Regulation level. The feedback is related to the processes in the learner‘s mind, such
as self-assessment, willingness to receive feedback, self-confidence, and help-seeking
behaviour.

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