د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B13

reading feedback would be roughly the same for identical feedback content, but under
different feedback timing conditions. In addition, the relationship between students‘ attitudes
and time spent reading feedback was explored.
Chapter 3 focuses on a systematic review of the effects of written item-based feedback
in a computer-based assessment on students‘ learning outcomes. The purpose of this study
was to investigate the effectiveness of different methods for providing feedback in a CBA on
students‘ learning outcomes as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge on this topic. In
analysing the results, feedback characteristics such as type, level, and timing were taken into
account. The level of learning outcomes was also taken into account, as Smith and Ragan
(2005) claimed that different ways of providing feedback are differentially advantageous for
certain levels of learning outcomes. The conclusions of the different studies were brought
together and synthesized using a qualitative method (narrative analysis).
Chapter 4 presents a meta-analysis aimed at gaining insight into the effectiveness of
various methods for providing item-based feedback in a computer-based environment on
students‘ learning outcomes. The currently available evidence in the literature on the effects
of feedback on student learning in computer-based environments is limited (e.g., Azevedo &
Bernard, 1995; Jaehnig & Miller, 2007; Van der Kleij, Timmers, & Eggen, 2011). Therefore,
there is a need for a meta-analysis that takes into account variables that seem relevant given
the literature, which builds on some of the conclusions drawn in existing overview studies.
Conducting a meta-analysis makes it possible to detect patterns or effects that are not visible
at the level of individual experiments. It also provides us with insights into the magnitude of
the feedback effects. While in Chapters 2 and 3 only written feedback was considered, in
Chapter 4 no restrictions were made with respect to feedback mode.
1.4.2 Feedback Provided through a Computer to Educators
Chapters 5 and 6 focus on how to provide feedback effectively to educators in the
form of a computerised score report based on students‘ assessment results. This research has
been conducted in the context of the reports generated by the Computer Program LOVS. This
computer program automatically generates reports of test results belonging to Cito‘s pupilmonitoring
system, LOVS.
The purpose of the study presented in Chapter 5 was to (a) investigate the extent to
which the reports from the Computer Program LOVS are correctly interpreted by teachers,
internal support teachers, and school principals and (b) identify stumbling blocks for teachers,
internal support teachers, and principals when interpreting reports from the Computer
Program LOVS. Furthermore, the study aims to explore the possible influences of various
variables that seem relevant given the literature, such as training in the use of the Computer
Program LOVS and the degree to which the information from the Computer Program LOVS
is perceived as useful.
Chapter 6 investigated how the reports generated by the Computer Program LOVS
could be redesigned to support users in interpreting pupils‘ test results. In several rounds of
consultations with users and experts, alternative designs for the reports were created and field
tested. The aims of this study were twofold. First, solve a problem in practice, i.e., users,
particularly teachers, seem to experience difficulties in interpreting the reports generated by

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