د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B14

the Computer Program LOVS (based on the results of Chapter 5). Second, contribute to the
theoretical understanding regarding score reporting.
1.4.3 A Comparison of three Approaches to Formative Assessment
Chapter 7 relates to the broader approach in which computer-based assessments may
be used to support learning. The chapter addresses the theoretical differences and similarities
amongst three approaches to formative assessment that are currently most frequently
discussed in educational research literature. The first approach is data-based decision making
(DBDM), which defines improving students‘ learning outcomes in terms of results and
attaining specified targets (Wayman et al., 2013). Second, assessment for learning (AfL),
(Assessment Reform Group [ARG], 1999), is an assessment approach that focuses on the
quality of the learning process, rather than merely on students‘ (final) learning outcomes
(Stobart, 2008). Finally, diagnostic testing (DT) is an approach in which detailed assessment
data about a learner‘s problem solving are collected to explain his or her learning process and
learning outcomes (Crisp, 2012; Keeley & Tobey, 2011). Within some of the approaches, the
terminology and definitions are inappropriately used interchangeably; therefore, it is valuable
to review and compare the theoretical underpinnings of DBDM, AfL, and DT. To move the
field of educational assessment forward, clarity on the theoretical underpinnings is necessary.
The study compared the similarities and differences in the theoretical underpinnings of
DBDM, AfL, and DT. Furthermore, it explored the consequences of these similarities and
differences for implementing DBDM, AfL, and DT in educational practice.
Table 1.1 presents a schematic outline of this dissertation. The chapters in this
dissertation can be read independently of one another. To conclude with, an epilogue that is
built upon the contents of the individual chapters is presented, and some suggestions for
future research are provided.

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