د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B34

told the correct answer. Another type of feedback distinguished by Shute is termed elaborated
feedback (EF). There is no clear definition for EF; the degree of elaboration differs widely.
EF could, for example, mean that the student is presented with worked-out solution steps or is
directed to study material. Besides these types of feedback, a distinction can be made between
single-try and multiple-try feedback. This implies students can answer an item again after an
initial incorrect response.
Hattie and Timperley (2007) distinguish four levels at which the feedback can be
aimed—this is an expansion of a previously developed model by Kluger and DeNisi (1996).
They distinguish between the self, task, process, and regulation levels. Feedback at the self
level is not related to the task performed but is aimed at learner characteristics. Feedback at
the task level is aimed at correcting work. Process-level feedback relates to the process that
was followed to perform a particular task and gives suggestions regarding how the process
can be improved. Feedback at the regulation level relates to processes in the mind of the
learner, such as those of self-assessment, willingness to receive feedback and self-regulation
in learning.
Also, the timing of feedback can differ. In the literature, immediate and delayed
feedback is distinguished. Immediate feedback is usually delivered directly after the student
has responded to an item (Shute, 2008). There is no univocal definition for delayed feedback
because there is a wide range of possibilities for the degree of delay in which the feedback is
delivered. In CBAs, delivering feedback often happens relatively quickly because the
computer itself generates the feedback. In this study, the term delayed feedback is used for all
feedback that is not delivered immediately after completing each item.
3.1.3 Feedback and Learning
This study‘s focus is on the effects of feedback on students‘ learning outcomes.
Learning outcomes is a broad term that describes the outcomes of a learning process, one in
which a student has executed particular tasks. Smith and Ragan (2005) emphasize that
Some learning tasks are substantially different from others in terms of the amount and
kind of cognitive effort required in learning, in the kinds of learning conditions that
support their learning, and in the way to test for their achievement. (p. 79)
Also, they claim that different ways of providing feedback are differentially advantageous for
certain levels of learning outcomes.
In this study, a distinction is made between lower-order and higher-order learning
outcomes. For this purpose, two fundamental theories are combined, as described by Smith
and Ragan (2005). These theories are Gagné‘s (1985) types of learning outcomes and Bloom,
Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl‘s (1956) taxonomy. Gagne‘s declarative knowledge and
Bloom et al.‘s recall and understanding are categorized as lower-order learning outcomes.
These types of learning demand that students recall, recognize or understand something
without the need to apply this knowledge.
In higher-order learning outcomes, an application of the knowledge gained is required.
Gagné (1985) refers to these learning outcomes as intellectual skills. In the theory developed
by Bloom et al. (1956), these types of learning are divided into application, analysis,

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