د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B43

assessment(s) used in the experiment. Others did not report on the reliability of the
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assessment(s) at all. As well, the relationship between the underlying constructs of the
sometimes-used pre-test, the assessment for learning, and the post-test/summative assessment
was often unclear.
It is important to take into account the difficulty of the tasks in relation to the effects
of feedback. Half of the studies provide information on the difficulty of the assessments used,
of which six reported exact values (e.g., proportion correct). When looking at the results of
those studies, it is striking that significant effects concerning a given method of providing
feedback are found when using relatively difficult items (e.g., Butler et al., 2008).
Shute (2008) reviewed literature on formative feedback. She concluded that ―there is
no best way to provide feedback for all learners and learning outcomes‖ (p. 182). Given this,
she developed guidelines for generating formative feedback, taking into account variables
such as task difficulty. The results of this study suggest that when one wants students to learn
from feedback, relatively difficult items are generally most suitable. This, in itself, is logical,
since we can assume that when items that are more difficult are used, many will answer the
items incorrectly, which implies a gap between the current and intended levels of the student.
As a consequence, feedback provides an opportunity to fill this gap—for example, by
clarifying misunderstandings in the learning process (Mory, 2004). However, if the items are
relatively easy, with many students answering them correctly, only a few students can learn
from the feedback because the others have already (almost) achieved the intended learning
outcomes. In other words, using relatively difficult items provides opportunities to learn from
feedback. Additionally, it is recommended that students‘ previous ability levels be taken into
account when analysing the assessment results. As well, determining the time students spent
on reading the feedback can provide researchers with valuable information when used as a
measure of students‘ engagement with feedback.
In future research on the effects of feedback on learning, it is recommended that larger
experimental groups be used. This is because larger groups will increase statistical power and,
thus, the chance of finding significant effects. Furthermore, the characteristics of the task, the
feedback intervention, and the learner should be taken into account in order to learn more
about the effects of feedback on higher-order and lower-order learning outcomes.

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