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استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book p4

Chapter 4. Effects of Feedback in a Computer-Based Learning
Environment on Students’ Learning Outcomes: A Meta-analysis7
Abstract
This meta-analysis investigated the effects of methods for providing item-based feedback in a
computer-based environment on students‘ learning outcomes. From 40 studies, 70 effect sizes
were computed, which ranged from -0.78 to 2.29. A mixed model was used for the data
analysis. The results showed that elaborated feedback (EF), e.g., providing an explanation,
produced higher effect sizes (0.49) than feedback regarding the correctness of the answer
(KR; 0.05) or providing the correct answer (KCR; 0.32). EF was particularly more effective
than KR and KCR for higher-order learning outcomes. Effect sizes were positively affected
by the feedback type EF. Larger effect sizes were found for mathematics compared to social
sciences, science, and languages. Effect sizes were negatively affected by delayed feedback
timing, and primary and high school. Although the results suggested that immediate feedback
was more effective for lower-order learning than delayed feedback, and vice versa, no
significant interaction was found.

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