د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B60

5.1 Introduction
When data about students are used to inform decisions in the school, it is referred to as
data-driven decision making (DDDM). Through DDDM, one can guide education based on
the outcomes of measurements in both a diagnostic and evaluative way (Ledoux, Blok,
Boogaard, & Krüger, 2009). School performance feedback systems (SPFS) are external party
systems that aim to provide schools with insight into the outcomes of the education they have
provided (Visscher & Coe, 2002). SPFS provides schools with feedback on a systematic basis
(Fitz-Gibbon & Tymms, 2002). Ultimately, this feedback aims to improve the quality of
education within the school (Verhaeghe, 2011). Pupil-monitoring systems are a kind of SPFS
that have been developed primarily to monitor the individual progress of pupils. Pupilmonitoring
systems are important in DDDM, since the data about learning progress at the
pupil level form an important source of information for decisions at all levels of the school.
The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science (2010) promotes DDDM. The
Ministry distinguishes four levels at which DDDM can be aimed: the school board level, the
school level, the class level, and the level of the individual pupil. For the successful
implementation of DDDM, the Ministry uses five indicators:
 the annual evaluation of the learning outcomes of pupils;
 the frequent evaluation of the educational process;
 the systematic monitoring of pupils‘ progress by teachers;
 the quality of the testing system; and
 the evaluation of the effects of interventions.
The indicators point out that the ministry strives towards a schoolwide implementation
of DDDM. The Dutch DDDM policy requires the entire school team to evaluate the education
based on test results. Principals are expected to conduct schoolwide evaluations for both
internal (school improvement – formative) and external (accountability – summative)
purposes. The ministry (2010) expects teachers to systematically monitor their pupils‘
progress, meaning that they have insight into the capacities, potentials, and limitations of their
pupils based on the results of a pupil-monitoring system and classroom assessment. Internal
support teachers are expected to collaborate with the class teachers and to support them in
interpreting test results, analysing test results, and seeking suitable solutions to learning
problems.
DDDM encompasses a systematic and cyclic process. Bennett (2011) has described
the cyclic process of educational measurement as consisting of four activities: ―…designing
opportunities to gather evidence, collecting evidence, interpreting it, and acting on
interpretations‖ (p. 16). This study focuses on the interpretation of test results from Cito‘s9
pupil-monitoring system for primary education (LOVS).
The LOVS program encompasses various tests (e.g., Math, reading comprehension,
and spelling) that can be used to systematically map pupils‘ learning progress. LOVS tests are
primarily meant to provide teachers with insight into the outcomes of the education that has
been offered. These insights can subsequently be used to adapt teaching where needed.

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