د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B78

6.1. Introduction and Study Context
Recently, Van der Kleij and Eggen (2013) investigated the interpretation of the score
reports from the Computer Program LOVS, Cito‘s (the Institute for Educational Measurement
in the Netherlands) pupil-monitoring system for primary education. The results suggested that
users, particularly teachers, do not make an entirely correct interpretation of these reports, and
they encounter many stumbling blocks. This situation is problematic, given the demands
placed on all actors within Dutch schools with respect to the implementation of data-driven
decision making (DDDM) (Ministry of Education, Culture, & Science, 2010). Sometimes
called data-based decision making (e.g., Schildkamp, Lai, & Earl, 2013), DDDM has been
increasingly popular, as it is considered a promising means of improving pupils‘ learning
outcomes. However, a correct interpretation of data regarding student learning is a necessary
precondition for DDDM to fulfil its potential.
Pupil-monitoring systems provide users with feedback about pupil performance in the
form of a score report at the level of the individual pupil, class, or school; this is called data
feedback. The data feedback is intended to inform learning in order to close the gap between a
pupil‘s current performance and the intended learning outcomes (Hattie & Timperley, 2007;
Sadler, 1989). Thus, score reports from pupil-monitoring systems aim to steer future
educational decisions and activities at various levels within the school, which is at the heart of
DDDM.
6.1.1 The Pupil-Monitoring Computer Program LOVS
The pupil-monitoring system LOVS consists of a coherent set of nationally
standardised tests for longitudinal assessment of primary school children. Covering skills such
as reading comprehension, spelling, and math, the LOVS tests are usually administered twice
a year.
Various computer programs are available for registering and processing the test
results, but this study solely focuses on Cito‘s Computer Program LOVS. This computer
program allows the automatic generation of score reports at the level of the pupil, group, or
school. The reports provide both graphical representations and numerical information, either
in a table or a graph, or a combination of both. In all LOVS tests, the items are calibrated onto
an Item Response Theory (IRT) scale. Every subject area has its own unique scale, which
implies that the pupils‘ abilities cannot be directly interpreted. In order to give meaning to the
pupils‘ abilities, level indicators that represent certain percentile scores in the population are
used. At the levels of the individual pupil and the class, the Computer Program LOVS aims to
feed back information about student learning for instructional improvement, which is
considered a formative purpose (Stobart, 2008). At the levels of the class and the school, the
reports are intended for the school‘s own evaluation purposes, both formatively and
summatively.

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