د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B82

2. Principle of Appropriate Knowledge. It is advised that the target user(s)‘s
characteristics be taken into account. This approach counts for both the selected type
of graph and the data presented in it. Research suggests that users prefer types of
reports similar to what they are accustomed (Wainer, Hambleton, & Meara, 1999).
Moreover, Kosslyn (2006) has emphasised that a display should build on knowledge
that the reader already possesses. Furthermore, a list explaining the key terms used in
the report can be helpful (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997). Various researchers have
discouraged the use of statistical jargon (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004; Hambleton &
Meara, 2000; Ryan, 2003; Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997). The use of decimals has
also been dissuaded (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997).
3. Principle of Salience. The most important information should be highlighted
(Goodman & Hambleton, 2004; Kosslyn, 2006; Ryan, 2003, Tufte, 1983, 1990;
Wainer, 1997) and thus presented to attract attention, for example, by using boldface
text (Kosslyn, 2006), frames, or visual displays (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997).
However, Kosslyn has emphasised that what is ―visually striking‖ depends on all
properties of the display. In other words, how much attention a certain aspect will
draw is always relative. Making the score reports as clear as possible by avoiding
clutter (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004; Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997), and using
sufficient white space (Leeson, 2006) have also been proposed. Moreover, a score
report should be ―actionable‖ (Zenisky & Hambleton, 2012), i.e., suggest a future
course of action in the learning process (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004; Hattie, 2009).
4. Principle of Discriminability. The graph properties should be sufficiently different
from one another to be distinguishable by the user (Kosslyn, 2006). For example, two
lines representing two groups should be separately distinctive.
5. Principle of Perceptual Organisation. People will automatically group elements into
patterns, which is influenced by their colour and ordering. For example, xxxx is seen
as a cluster of elements, but xx xx is viewed as two groups. Furthermore, it is advised
that the data be grouped in a meaningful way (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004). Using
bar graphs is recommended for comparison purposes, where individual bars can best
be arranged by height (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997). Colours can also be used in
meaningful ways (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997), e.g., cool colours at the
background and warm colours at the foreground, because warm tones appear closer to
the human eye than cool hues (Kosslyn, 2006). According to Leeson (2006), people
are likely to read a paper report, but are inclined to ―scan‖ reports displayed onscreen.
Wainer et al. (1999) have also claimed that reports have to be seen, not merely read.
Thus, this is possibly an important aspect to bear in mind when (re)designing digital
score reports.
6. Principle of Compatibility. The shape of the message should be compatible with the
structure of the graph. This implies that something displayed as ‗more‘ in the graph
must visually match ‗more‘ of something. For example, a higher bar in a bar chart
would mean a higher test score. Also, certain patterns and conventions should be
considered. In Western cultures, for example, the colour red means ‗stop‘ and green
signifies ‗go‘. Ignoring the meanings of these colours in certain cultures violates this
Towards Valid Score Reports in the Computer Program LOVS: A Redesign Study
131
principle (Kosslyn, 2006). Moreover, as previously mentioned, colours should be used
in meaningful ways (Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997).
7. Principle of Informative Changes. People expect certain changes to contain
information. For example, a rising line in a graph means an increase of something.
Furthermore, it is important to label all relevant aspects of the graph (Kosslyn, 2006).
8. Principle of Capacity Limitations. Human beings are capable of processing a limited
amount of information at one instance. Therefore, the quantity of data presented
should be restricted. It has been advised that a combination of displays or graphs and
supporting text be employed whenever possible (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004;
Hattie, 2009; Leeson, 2006; Tufte, 1983, 1990; Wainer, 1997). By using both visual
and textual forms of representation, information can be processed more easily. This
way, the reader gets the chance to create both verbal and graphical mental models, and
to link these models to one another. Visual and textual representations should be
placed at a close proximity to one another on the screen or page. This increases the
likelihood for both representation forms to remain in working memory, which
facilitates effective processing (Mayer, 2001).

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