د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B96

7.2.2 Implementation of DBDM: Aggregation Level, Assessment Methods, and Feedback
Loops
Aggregation level. Data collection regarding DBDM takes place at the school, class,
and student levels. Data are gathered from different stakeholders. At the student and class
levels, assessment results are an important source of information about how learning
processes could be improved for both students and teachers. Students need feedback to choose
the most suitable learning strategies in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes, while
teachers need data to act on the students‘ current points of struggle and to reflect on their own
teaching practices (Young & Kim, 2010). Data can also be used at the school level for school
development purposes, for example, to increase aggregated student achievement (Schildkamp
& Lai, 2013).
Assessment methods. Different data types can be used for school and instructional
development. The data type most often referred to is objective output data from standardised
tests, for example, from a student monitoring system. However, these data are less frequently
available than those from informal assessment situations, such as homework assignments.
Next to these formally gathered data, teachers possess data collected using various
standardised assessment methods and (structured) observations from daily practice (Ikemoto
& Marsh, 2007).
Access to high-quality data is essential for DBDM because the quality of the decision
depends upon the quality of the data used (Coburn & Turner, 2011; Schildkamp & Kuiper,
2010). For the implementation of DBDM, schools need access to multiple sources of highquality
data (especially if the stakes are high) and therefore need a good data use
infrastructure (Breiter & Light, 2006; Wayman & Stringfield, 2006).
Feedback loops. The most frequently used kind of feedback in DBDM is feedback
based on assessment data. Teachers and other educators have to transform assessment data
Data-Based Decision Making, Assessment for Learning, and Diagnostic Testing in Formative
Assessment
161
into meaningful actions for educational improvement. These actions include making changes
in practice and providing students with feedback on their learning processes and outcomes
(Schildkamp et al., 2013). Often, feedback aims to identify the current achievement level
related to the desired achievement level and how to decrease this gap (Hattie & Timperly,
2007). According to Timperly (2009), teachers need to engage in a continuous cycle of
inquiry: Based on (assessment) data, identifying what students need to learn and what
teachers themselves need to learn, and after taking actions in the form of changes in
instruction and/or feedback to students, checking these actions‘ impacts on the learners. The
length of these cycles and feedback loops varies. For example, the feedback loops are
relatively long when involving the use of standardised assessments, which are only available
once or twice a year. The majority of these loops are retroactive in nature, meaning that based
on data, achievement gaps are identified and addressed.

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