د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

eLearning 2

From eLearning 1 to eLearning 2: The
Evolution
eLearning ranges from a supplemental use of
computers to entirely depending on ICTs for
teaching, learning and education management.
However, modern sophisticated uses of eLearning in
some parts of the world has not reached this level
instantly rather along the development trajectory of
the ICTs themselves (VanFossen & Berson, 2008).
As the computers and communication technologies
became more and more advanced and increasingly
supportive in the education environment, the
eLearning models grew into more sophisticated tools
for the university teachers, students and
administrators (Nawaz, 2012a).
The computer based education has crossed the
following stages so far:
1. eLearning was called computer-assisted
learning, computer-based training or technologybased
training, in 1970s and 1980s.
Pedagogically, early programs mostly involved
electronic page turning and were didactic in
approach with transmitted knowledge as the
purpose. The teachers used to transmit the
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knowledge rather than facilitating the learner
and learning process (Nawaz & Kundi, 2010c).
2. Other forms of educational-media came into
market by the 1990s to supplement old
eLearning and brought eLearning at the public
level offering discussions and debates through
communication technologies – a kind of
“negotiated-knowledge (Gray et al., 2003).”
Email and discussion groups are playing key role
in this kind of eLearning (Valcke, 2004). In the
late 1990s, innovations in computer hardware,
computer software, and Internet technologies
introduced a line of education products that
established the eLearning industry (Nawaz et al.,
2011a).
3. Around the end of 1990s, virtual learning
environments (VLEs) have emerged with tools
and techniques for the course-management and
interactivity of teachers and learners through a
long line of opportunities particularly, the webbaed
applications, which enable not to simply
deliver knowledge rather empower learners to
develop research skills and capitalize on web to
“harvest knowledge (El-Hussein & Cronje,
2010).” In contrast to instrumental education,
‘Liberal’ theory advises to harvest the intellect
and develop analytical and critical thinking
because liberal education views the search for
knowledge as an active and interconnected
social activity and not merely a recollection of
facts (Nawaz, 2013).
2.1 Traditional Computer-based Learning
Conventional teaching emphasizes content
where course is written around textbooks and
teachers teach through lectures and presentations and
so design the learning activities that the contents
could be rehearsed (Dinevski & Kokol, 2005).
Traditional computer-mediated instruction is based
on a certain level of technical rationality and
objectivist and behaviorist ideas, which emphasize
that knowledge and reality exists out there therefore
the pedagogy takes a the learner from basic to applied
knowledge and ultimately into practice (Groth et al.,
2009). In traditional learning there is low
collaboration with teacher-centered learning contexts
where there is one-way communication from the
teacher to the learner and learning materials are
disseminated in print format however, eLearning is
now moving away from the traditional computer
based learning (Kundi & Nawaz, 2010).
2.2 Blended Learning
It is the combination of face to face and
computer based teaching and learning or a
combination of traditional classroom practice with
eLearning solutions. It is a shift from computer-based
instruction where students learn from technology, to
enabling students to learn with the technology
(Young, 2003). Blended learning is also called multimodal
learning. It is a learning facilitation that
incorporates different modes of delivery, models of
teaching, and learning styles, introduces multiple
media to the dialog between the learner and the
facilitator (VanFossen & Berson, 2008).
Furthermore, blended eLearning applications within
the higher education sector are mushrooming
(Nawaz, 2012d).
Since blending refers to the mix of traditional
and digital methods of teaching, learning and
administration, therefore all the institutes, which are
beginning to computerize, come under the general
umbrella of blended learning. The research shows
that eLearning is enjoying a growing maturity,
blending the technology with other forms of delivery
such as face-to-face teaching (Gray et al., 2003).
However, blended learning is not simply a matter of
the combination of face-to-face and online instruction
rather it depends on social interaction. Community
building and maintenance is an integral part of
Blended Learning, but all that can fail if there is
mismatch between the facilities and individuality of
students and lecturers (Nawaz et al., 2011a).

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