د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

eLearning3

Problems & Prospects
Research tells that more than half of all ITprojects
become runways by overshooting their
budgets and calendars thereby failing to deliver
(McManus & Wood-Harper, 2004:3). Similarly,
networked learning is appearing in the universities
however, its overall impact is still very limited
(Overbay et al., 2009). Several researchers have
identified the problems for the development, use and
integration of ICTs into teaching, learning and
educational management (Qureshi et al., 2009;
Nawaz et al., 2011c).
3.1 Development and Implementation Issues
eLearning is not merely another medium for the
transmission of knowledge rather it changes the
relationship between the teacher and learner (Gray et
al., 2003). It requires new skills, competencies and
attitudes amongst those planners, managers, teachers
and trainers who are going to design and develop
materials and support learners online. Thus, the
development of innovative practices and the
generation of new competencies in eLearning are fast
becoming key issues (Memon, 2007). The focus is
frequently placed on design and developing ICTbased
environments and insufficient attention is
given to the delivery process (VanFossen & Berson,
2008).
University constituents hold differing
perceptions and attitudes about the role of technology
in the classroom and at the same time power
structures in higher education, and insufficient
communication among the various groups’ present
obstacles to real technological and educational
development (Juniu, 2005). There is evidence on the
fact that during the eLearning project development
very little communication occurs between users and
ICT professionals or developers. In the development
practices, people feel that they are increasingly
controlled by machines and that the human factors of
their work are disappearing. They find losing their
privacy and unsure about the security of data and
information (Nawaz et al., 2011a).
a) Absence of the Native eLearning Models
The countries like Pakistan commonly try to
follow the developments in the developed world.
Walsham (2000:105) argues that “the approaches
taken from the industrialized countries may not
transfer effectively to the different environments of
the developing countries.” The research confirms that
an eLearning model in US can be implemented in
some Asian country with the expectations of same
results (Mokhtar et al., 2007; Koo, 2008). There are
several differences in the context of both the
countries. The developing countries are borrowing
foreign models which are also foreign to their
environment therefore; the wanted results are
emerging neither in volume nor in quality unless a
contextual rethinking is accelerated (Nawaz et al.,
2011b).
b) No or Poor Local Research
The main reason for the gap between theory and
practice is the lack of local research to record the
local context, user views and requirements and
thereby plan accordingly. This issue is frequently
discussed in academic institutions with lack of
funding and facilities as the major cause for the
problem. Whatever the reason, it is not possible to
harness new ICTs without first measuring the pulse
of local perceptions and mindset (Hameed, 2007).
The researchers report over and over that technology
integration in any context depends on how the
technology fits into the existing social purposes and
practices of a community (Overbay et al., 2009).
Similarly, HEC’s website asserts that the ICT to
support higher education reform and the development
of a research culture in Pakistani universities is
essential (HEC, 2011).
c) User-Participation in the Development Process
The biggest hurdle in contextualizing the
eLearning environments is the lack of participation in
the development trajectory of digital projects. The
projects mismatch the context because the users are
not contacted thoroughly to explain different aspects
of their context before the developers who can then
embed these user requirements into the new digital
systems (Groth et al., 2009). Users complain about
their deprivation from having a say in the eLearning
systems. The problem is more sensitive and touchy in
developing countries where demographic differences
are far more tense and implicative. There are many
problems for this lack of user participation including
demographic differences and diversities in
perceptions and attitudes about ICTs, their
development and uses (Nawaz, 2013).
 

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