د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

User Concerns

Use and User Concerns
Following issues are constantly reported by the
researchers as the leading barriers from the user
perspectives:
1. System Compatibility: The greatest challenge in
learning environments is to adapt the computerbased
system to differently skilled learners. If the
environment is too complex the user will be lost,
confused or frustrated (Sirkemaa, 2001).
Life Science Journal 2013;10(12s) http://www.lifesciencesite.com
567
Technology is by nature disruptive, and so,
demands new investments of time, money,
space, and skills and changes in the way people
do things (Aaron et al., 2004). Furthermore, faceto-
face communication is critical for classroom
social relationships and interpersonal processes
while, online technologies have reduced support
for social interaction. Although emotions can be
conveyed through e-mail or chatting, it does not
replace the fundamentals of our socio-emotional
well-being (Overbay et al., 2009). Thus, the
barriers can make technology use frustrating for
even the technological experts (Nawaz et al.,
2011a).
2. Dependence on Technical Department and
Professionals: Nawaz & Qureshi (2010a) note
that a very critical problem in the use of
eLearning is the dependence of teachers, students
and administrators on the ICT-department or
technical support needed by the users across the
using process. Similarly, users do not only
depend on ICT staff for technological support
but also face pressures from the pedagogues to
demonstrate the role of technology in supporting
constructive, authentic, and cooperative learning
(Nawaz et al., 2011c). Research suggests that
only the technology training cannot ensure better
use of new tools, users also need continuous
technical and human resource support for
technology integration (Nawaz & Zubair,
2012b).
3. Change Management: Within universities, the
implementation of ICT is not an easy task for
instance, decision makers and academics are
sometimes reluctant to change curricula and
pedagogic approaches; teaching staff and
instructors lack incentive and rewards in a
system where professional status and career
trajectories are based on research results rather
than pedagogic innovation (Groth et al., 2009).
There are many obstacles for implementation of
the ICT in universities. Some of them are
classical, as are e.g. inertia of behavior of people,
their resistance to changes, etc. If the ICT should
serve properly, it should enforce an order in all
folds of the university life. People who lose their
advantage of the better access to information
have a fear from order (Nawaz et al., 2011c).
4. Political Sustainability: Political sustainability
refers to the acceptance of new system by the
administrators handling the policy and leadership
matters in the universities, particularly, in a
bottom up approach, the grass-roots may be
better placed to understand and implement
innovation, but there can be a lack of physical
and political support (Overbay et al., 2009).
There is a lack of feedback towards higher levels
of decision and general policy, and little impact
on strategy definition and implementation
thereby creating resistance on the part of
administrators to help and cooperate (Nawaz &
Qureshi, 2010b).
3.3 Current Conditions in Pakistan
a) Multiplicity of Digital-Divides
The digital divide in higher education refers to
the ‘division of knowledge, expectations, and needs
that influences the access to information, what
technology is needed, and how it should be integrated
in the classroom (Juniu, 2005). A commonsense
approach to overcoming this gap is to create
partnerships among students, faculty, computing
staff, and administrators (Kopyc, 2007). The
multiplicity of perceptions, theories, and attitudes of
users towards ICTs creates digital divides within the
environment of higher education (Nawaz & Kundi,
2011). Those who support technology, they seek for
it and therefore reduce the impacts of digital divide
for them. But users who don’t the support
technology; they adopt it passively thereby widening
the digital divide for themselves. The digital divide
categorizes individuals, groups, communities, and
nations according to their access to ICTs including
Internet (Nawaz, 2012a)

الوقت من ذهب

اذكر الله


المصحف الالكتروني