د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المساعد بكلية التربية بالزلفي

computer-based assessment

Designing for high-stakes
computer-based assessment
University of Derby
Background
A multimedia interactive e-assessment system – the
Tripartite Interactive Assessment Delivery System (TRIADS)
– was developed in house at the University of Derby in 1992
and developed further in partnership with the University of
Liverpool and The Open University. Unusually, most tests
delivered by TRIADS are medium or high stakes with a
smaller but increasing proportion of purely formative
assessments. In 2005-2006, TRIADS delivered mediumto
high-stakes assessments to 10,000 students at Derby,
measured on a single student access per assessment basis.
Technologies, systems and policies
With a Macromedia® Authorware® base, TRIADS provides
a flexible design structure with the option to build in
simulations and multimedia. The wide variety of question
designs required by different subjects has been resolved by
producing code templates for generic question styles that
may be used singly or in combination. The templates
contain full error-trapping routines and can facilitate the
award of partial credit, ie the awarding of marks for
method or for stages in an answer, as well as for final
answers. The screen layout has been developed over
many years for clarity and ease of use and in accordance
with current guidelines on accessibility.
TRIADS can also support randomised selection and
sequencing of questions and may be delivered on the
web, local area network (LAN) or CD. Detailed reporting
of candidate performance is also provided by the system,
helping to pinpoint atypical results that suggest
malpractice has occurred.
The Centre for Interactive Assessment Development
(CIAD) at the University of Derby provides support for
staff in all aspects of test production, including question
design, quality assurance, monitoring of delivery and
reporting on results.
Rethinking assessment practice
Despite the sophistication offered by TRIADS, 70% of use
occurs in the first year of courses at Derby, tailing off to 20%
in the second and 10% in the third years. So a further role
for CIAD is in widening understanding of how e-assessment
can foster the development of higher order skills and reduce
the workload for staff. ‘Something I always try to point out is
that it is intellectually a lot more stimulating to design an
online or e-assessment than it is to sit there marking 300
scripts,’ points out Professor Don Mackenzie, Senior
e-Assessment Manager. He recognises, however, that staff
may face a double burden of developing e-assessments
while still undertaking marking generated by traditional
practice, and for this reason, a centralised support unit,
CIAD, has been set up.
Measuring the frequency and timing of access to tests has
revealed interesting information on how and when students
study. This unexpected insight, derived from tracking data,
revealed that many students retake the multimedia
interactive TRIADS tests, enjoying the challenge of
competing to improve on their previous score, as in
computer games. Evidence from Derby also suggests that
students are more likely to test themselves on a regular
basis than when taking pen and paper examinations.

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