Ameliorative Effects of Selenium and Vitamins C and E on Chronic Fluoride Pancreatic Toxicity: Structural and Ultrastructural Changes in Albino Rats
Gamal Abdel Salam1, Esam M. Mehlab1, Mohamed Al-Shishtawy2 and Ibrahim Al-Zahrani3
Departments of Anatomy1and Forensic & Applied Toxicology2, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, KSA3
Abstract: Objectives: Histological evaluation of toxic effects of chronic exposure to sodium fluoride (NaF) on pancreas of albino rats and the impact of synchronous administration of selenium and vitamins C and E. Materials & Methods: The study comprised 60 normal healthy growing adult male albino rats, weighing 200-250 gm. The animals were divided into three equal groups: Control group received no medications, NaF group received NaF solution in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) once daily for 35 days. Prophylaxis group received one daily dose of NaF solution in addition to selenium and vitamins C and E. All medications were administered orally using syringe connected to a 8F pediatric feeding tube. Studied animals were weighed daily for adjustment of the doses of used medications. After 35 days from the beginning of experiment all animals were sacrificed and pancreas was extracted for light microscopic (LM) examination of specimens stained with hematoxilin-eosin (Hx & E) and Masson's trichrome stain and for electron microscopic examination. Results: The percentage of BW gain was significantly higher in control group compared to other groups with significantly higher percentage of BW gain in prophylaxis group compared to NaF group. LM examination of NaF group specimen showed loss of normal architecture of pancreatic acini with the appearance of many cytoplasmic vacuoles. There is congestion of blood vessels (BV) with occasional extravasations between acinar cells. Focal condensation of CT around the congested BV and in between acini. In prophylaxis group, architecture of pancreatic acini was preserved with basal nuclei and apical zymogen granules. Dark and light cells of islets of Langerhans appeared normal with minimal congestion of BV. Masson's Trichrome stained sections showed condensation of connective tissue around BV with less CT in between acini. EM examination of NaF group specimen showed pyramidal acinar cells containing rounded basal heterochromatic nuclei and well defined rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some mitochondria are intact, while others are vacuolated with small number of zymogen granules. There were multiple vesicles of variable sizes with large vesicles having membranous structures and amorphous materials. Nuclei of B-cell of islet of Langerhans were heterochromatic and its characteristic granules are normal with central dense core separated from their limiting membrane by clear space, while other granules are vacuolated. In prophylaxis group, specimens showed that some pyramidal acinar cell had double nuclei and its cytoplasm contains rER, many zymogen granules and some vesicles. B-cell had heterochromatic nucleus and its characteristic granules had a dense core. A-cell had oval nucleus with moderate amount of electron dense granules. Conclusion: Chronic fluoride exposure had deleterious effect on pancreatic structure and ultrastructure with manifested failure to thrive. Such effects could be attributed to redox state disturbances and could be ameliorated with the use of selenium and vitamins C and E.
[Gamal Abdel Salam, Esam M. Mehlab, Mohamed Al-Shishtawy and Ibrahim Al-Zahrani. Ameliorative Effects of Selenium and Vitamins C and E on Chronic Fluoride Pancreatic Toxicity: Structural and Ultrastructural Changes in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):274-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38
Kew words: Fluoride, Pancreas, Structural changes, Ultrastructure changes, Selenium, Vitamins. Full Text 38