Genotypic characterization of Giardia duodenalis in children in Menoufiya and Sharkiya governorates, Egypt
Gehan S. Sadek1, Magda A. El-Settawy2 and Soha A. Nasr3
Parasitology Department1'2, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University1 and Zagazig University2 and Clinical Pathology Department3, National Research Center
Abstract: Giardia duodenalis is among the most common intestinal protozoa and is the most frequent parasitic agent of gastroenteritis worldwide. Chronic or recurrent giardiasis in children have been associated with malnutrition, wasting and stunting, most likely due to malabsorption caused by the parasites. Also, this parasite could cause reduced cognitive functions at later age. Genotypic characterization of Giardia duodenalishas been shown to be a useful tool in epidemiological studies and outbreak investigations. Molecular techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) have been successfully used for differentiation of Giardia duodenalisgenotypes. Considering the molecular differences and diversity of the prevalence of Giardia duodenalisassemblages in different regions of the world, and in view of probable correlation between Giardia duodenalisassemblage and clinical symptoms, this study was aimed to assess the genotypes of Giardia duodenalisisolates from patients with giardiasis in two governorates of Egypt namely Menoufiya and Sharkiya and its relation to clinical manifestations of the disease. Eighty samples were collected from Menoufiya Governorate and eighty one samples from Sharkiya Governorate. Samples were collected from children aged 5-12 years of both sexes. Samples were examined as wet smear after staining with Lugol's iodine. Negative samples were further examined by Trichrome stain. All positive samples were subjected to examination by PCR-RFLP to detect Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Prevalence of giardiasis in Menoufiya Governorate was 30% and it was 28.4% in Sharkiya Governorate. Assemblage AII represents 83.33% of Menoufiya samples and 70.59% of Sharkiya samples while assemblage BIII represents 16.67% of Menoufiya samples and 29.41% of Sharkiya samples. There was a high statistical significant association between assemblage AII and clinical manifestations of the disease, also between assemblage AII and age group 5-8 years. It was concluded that determination of the genetic grouping of Giardia duodenalis is a useful way to understand the infection route, to prevent infection effectively, to reveal the critical issues in the molecular epidemiology of this parasite, and finally to address important questions related to human health in Egypt. PCR-RFLP is a sensitive and powerful analytical tool that allows effective genotype discrimination within and between assemblages.
[Gehan S. Sadek, Magda A. El-Settawy and Soha A. Nasr.. Genotypic characterization of Giardia duodenalis in children in Menoufiya and Sharkiya governorates, Egypt. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):3006-3015]. (ISSN: 1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com.
Key words: Giardia duodenalis, gdh gene, PCR-RFLP, Menoufiya Governorate, Sharkiya Governorate, Egypt.