Nephrotoxicity Associated with the Use of Contaminated Dry Lemon Extract in Male Rats
Nagwa M. Elsawi1, Eman A. Al-Muhaini2, Safaa Y. Qusti2, Ahmed N. Abo-Khatwa2, Magda M. Aly 3and Sabry H. H. Younes1
1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt.
2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
3Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: The contamination of food and feedstuff with mycotoxins represents worldwide problem for both humans and animals. Citrinin, one of the well known mycotoxins which cause renal disease and death among livestock, poultry and perhaps humans as well since it is commonly found in food samples. Nephrotoxicity is produced in swine by feeding grain contaminated with Penicillium. citrinum. This study deals with the effect of dry lemon extract on some biochemical parameters and histological changes on kidneys of male “Wister Lewis rats” after being found to be moldy and having residues of citrinin mycotoxin. Fifty inbred weaned white male “Wistar Lewis rats” were divided randomly into 5 groups (10 rats each). One control group was daily gavaged with distilled water and four treated groups were daily gavaged with a soup lemon extract (2 ml/kg B.W) for 2 weeks (T1), double the dose (T2), triple the dose (T3). Group T4 was gavaged (2 ml/kg B.W) of yellow lemon soup for 2 weeks. Sera from all groups were collected to measure several biochemical indicators to assess kidney function, such as urea (BUN) and creatinine (SCr). Serum BUN increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to control. In addition, serum SCr increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to the control. On the other hand, total antioxidant concentration was significantly lower in all treated groups as compared to the positive control. However, alpha fetoprotein and carcinoembrionic antigen remained unchanged while pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 was decreased significantly. Histopathological changes of rat kidney revealed tubular degenerative changes in (T3) which explain biochemical changes. In conclusion, the use of dry lemon as a traditional food supplement in the Gulf region may pose some risk of food poisoning due to the presence of citrinin.
[Nagwa M. Elsawi, Eman A. Al-Muhaini, Safaa Y. Qusti, Ahmed N. Abo-Khatwa, Magda M. Aly and Sabry H. H. Younes. Nephrotoxicity Associated With the Use of Contaminated Dry Lemon Extract in Male Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(10):480-489]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70
Key words: Citrinin, P. citrinum, creatinine, rat, urea, Nephrotoxicity Full Text 70