Artificial kidney ,kidney failure is a condition where the kidney are incapable of performing its normal functions. Toxic substances which should have been excreted such as urea and creatinine - the breakdown product of muscle- accumulate in the body and if their levels are high patient should start on dialysis(4). Besides this, the volume of salt and water increases in the body and the composition of body Fluids may be seriously deranged (hyperkalcemia, acidosis, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia.
In the artificial kidney, blood is circulated through a membrane that retains unwanted waste materials, as Fiber walls contain micropores designed to allow waste products in the blood to pass without depleting the blood of other required constituents, and this process should be done without excessive pressure or cause it to permeate the fiber wall
Before hollow Fibers were introduced, most of these devices used flat sheet membranes or multi-layer fabrics, made of several layers of needle punched fabrics. These flat sheet membrane devices were difficult to build and had a significant leakage problem whereas hollow fibers could be made economically and are structurally reliable