Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Use of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
Hammoudah S.A.F.1,2,3, Hannan M.A.1,3, Al Harbi A.E. 1,3 and Al Harbi K.M. 1,3
1Centre of Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
2Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt
3Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a number of diseases that vary from self-limited warts to life threatening types of cancers( head and neck, ano-genital, oropharengeal and cervical cancers). Cervical cancer is considered the third common cancer among women and the fourth cause of increased mortality. The etiology of cervical cancer has been attributed to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in >99% of cases. While the genotypes of HPV linked to cervical cancer may vary in different parts of the world, almost 70% of cases around the world have been found to be due to two types of HPV namely HPV 16 and HPV 18. Molecular techniques using target specific HPV DNA amplification by PCR is an essential step for genotyping HPV as HPV DNA quantity in most samples is very low. There are three main techniques used for HPV detection and genotyping: Target amplification [amplify a specific DNA sequence from a targeted gene e.g. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)], signal amplification (increase the DNA-proportional signal to detectable levels using branched DNA or hybrid capture technology ) and probe amplification (amplify the probe e.g. ligase chain reaction). Other traditional, non-amplified based molecular techniques which include Southern blot hybridization, in situ hybridization (ISH), and dot blot are hardly used nowadays. The accurate detection of HPV genotypes has played a pivotal role in both molecular and epidemiological studies. Determining the prevalence and genotypes of HPV infection in women is mandatory for the development of vaccines targeting the oncogenic types of HPV. To achieve these goals, the HPV DNA test needed to be designed with the highest analytical sensitivity and specificity.
[Hammoudah S. A. F.. Hannan M. A., Al Harbi A. E. and Al Harbi K.M. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Use of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Life Sci J 2013;10(1):2012-2022] (ISSN:1097-8135).http://www.lifesciencesite.com.
Key words: Human papillomavirus, prevalence , genotyping, molecular diagnosis.