The cardiac valve
The cardiac valve prostheses
The first clinical use of a cardiac - valve prostheses took place in 1952 , when Brcharles Hufngel implanted the first artificial caged ball valve for aortic insufficiency .
The first implant of a replacement valve in the anatomic position took place in 1960, (48) since then many different types of heart valve prostheses have been developed and used in general during the past 10 years .
The surgical implantation of prosthetic heart valves has become successful. (49) Today there are many different way making prosthetic valves, because of the various complications , which occur with different valves . (50)