الرئيسية

الرئيسية

الساعات المكتبية

الساعات المكتبية

أعلان هام

إعلان هام

CONSIDERING A CAREER IN TEACHING



Considering
a career in teaching


Teaching
is like no other job. It is a career that genuinely makes a difference. It
offers the variety, challenge, and reward that you would expect from a graduate
entry job, as well as a good salary and opportunities for progression. You will
need Qualified Teacher Status to be able to teach and must successfully
complete initial teacher training. Routes into teaching have expanded in recent
years to include part-time training courses, flexible training to suit
individuals and training on the job while earning a salary.

Teachers act as facilitators or coaches, using interactive discussions to help
students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as Science, Mathematics, or
English, etc. Teachers provide the tools and environment for their students to
develop these skills.


Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
play a vital role in the development of children. What children learn and
experience during their early years can shape their views of themselves and the
world, and affect later success or failure in school, work, and their personal
lives. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers introduce children to
numbers, language, science, and social studies. They use games, music, artwork,
films, slides, computers, and other tools to teach basic skills.


Secondary school teachers specialize in a
specific subject, such as English, Mathematics, History, or Biology, etc. They
teach a variety of related courses. Teachers may use films, slides, overhead
projectors, and the latest technology in teaching, including computers, telecommunication
systems, and video discs. Use of computer resources, such as educational
software and the Internet, exposes students to a vast range of experiences and
promotes interactive learning.


For instance, through the Internet, American
students can communicate with students in other countries. Students also use
the Internet for individual research projects and information gathering.
Computers are used in other classroom activities as well, from helping students
solve math problems to learning English as a second language. Teachers may also
use computers to record grades and perform other administrative and clerical
duties. They must continually update their skills so they can instruct and use
the latest technology in the classroom. Some schools offer training to help
teachers enhance their awareness and understanding of different cultures.
Teachers may also include multicultural programming in their lesson plans to
address the needs of all students, regardless of their cultural background.


Teachers design classroom presentations to
meet student needs and abilities. They also work with students individually.
Teachers plan, evaluate, and assign lessons, listen to oral presentations, and
maintain classroom discipline. They observe and evaluate a student’s
performance and potential, and increasingly are asked to use new assessment
methods.


In addition to classroom activities, teachers
oversee study halls and homerooms and supervise extracurricular activities.
They identify physical or mental problems and refer students to the proper
resource or agency for diagnosis and treatment. Secondary school teachers
occasionally assist students in choosing courses, colleges, and careers.
Teachers also participate in education conferences and workshops.


Kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school
teaching requires a variety of skills and aptitudes, including a talent for
working with children; organizational, administrative, and recordkeeping
abilities, research and communication skills, the power to influence, motivate,
and train others, patience, and creativity. Workers in other occupations
requiring some of these aptitudes include college and university faculty,
counselors, education administrators, employment interviewers, librarians,
preschool teachers and child-care workers, public relations specialists, sales
representatives, social workers, and trainers and employee development
specialists.


Teaching
is an interesting and challenging profession. It is not for the meek or faint
of heart.” This statement, found in Joan Daleville and Emmett Sawyer’s book,
"Teacher Career Starter: The Road to a Rewarding Career,"
sets
forth a challenge and a great opportunity. These challenges and opportunities
exist in teaching. Teaching is a demanding, yet rewarding profession.


Teachers
can also use their leadership talents to advocate for others through
involvement in the teachers’ union, professional associations and community
organizations.


Teaching English overseas
is different from almost any other career that you're likely to become involved
in. The complexities of life overseas make it an exciting choice, but they also
create challenges that you're not likely to have experience dealing with.
Whenever I talk to people entering the overseas English teaching industry,
certain points keep coming up, and I have come to believe that recognizing a
number of things about English teaching early on can make a big difference in
how easy and successful your life teaching overseas can become.


The first
point to recognize is that you will probably be teaching English for a long
time. In this sense, teaching English is no different from other jobs, and as a
result, it is just as easy to get caught in it as in any other line of work. English
teaching provides a good life. In fact, it can provide a life that's too good.


WHY I PREFER TO BE A TEACHER



WHY
I PREFER TO BE A TEACHER
                                                               


Teaching is a noble profession. A
teacher takes the masses from the darkness to light, from ignorance to
knowledge, from illiteracy to literacy. A teacher shares all new ideas with his
students. Being a store-house of knowledge and information, he always keeps his
knowledge up-to-date. In this respect, he is the fountain of knowledge and
wisdom. Almost all the great men of the world started their career as teacher,
and history is full of such persons. A teacher is the builder of the nation,
and moulds the character of tender children and nurtures the noble qualities of
service, sacrifice and patriotism. In this respect, he is a basic pillar of a
nation’s progress. A teacher is a good friend, philosopher and guide, and takes
personal interest in their students and helps them in all respect. On other
hands, a teacher possesses many qualities. He dedicates his life to the noble
cause of education and teaches his students with love and dedication. He adopts
suitable method of teaching so that the students could understand it very
easily. He never minds at all if the students ask him questions. With his
excellent educational career, he seems to be a man of good habits with cheerful
mood. He possesses a very impressive personality, wearing simple, neat and
clean dress. A teacher transfers his good qualities to his students, and is
never lenient in the matters of discipline in the class. He promotes the
quality of education and capable to satisfy his students.


The
importance of a qualified teacher is felt everywhere. In short, a teacher plays
a vital role in the overall development of the students. A teacher works as a
model in his community and known as sympathizer, tolerant, punctual, honest,
good administrator, professional, a man of principles, and a man of letters,
sympathetic, encouraging, affectionate, comforting, helping, entertaining, and
researching, and have a lust for knowledge. A teacher never forgets basic four
skills as, 1)- Reading,
2)- Writing, 3)- Listening and 4)- Speaking, to make his teaching successful. A
teacher adopts these basic skills and has the ability to reproduce and transfer
these skills to his students. These four basic skills are as important as food
to maintain health or as back bone in the body. According to Bacon, “reading
maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man.”      


A teacher
pays a good deal of attention to pronunciation and fluency. A teacher’s good
pronunciation ultimately influences on the pronunciation of students. A teacher
controls on his voice while teaching English and his tone varies from word to
word and from sentence to sentence. A teacher always has the knowledge of
modern techniques


for learning correct
pronunciation. Effective teaching is based on better motivation; a teacher
motivates his students by using different methods and techniques to make his
teaching simple and interesting. A teacher is a good psychologist and reads the
mind of the students. He presents the lesson in a very interesting manner. He
stimulates students’ previous knowledge and relates it to the current lesson. A
teacher plans his lesson before teaching in the class. A good lesson plan is
essential for a successful teaching. A teacher observes the students behavior,
mistakes, and problems and try to solve them. A teacher facilitates and helps
his students, and also provides the opportunities to them to participate in a
lesson. He mostly uses oral work (conversation) techniques in classroom. He
proceeds from concrete examples to generalization. He connects himself with the
lives of the students. A teacher keeps objectives of teaching of English in his
mind, and encourages the previous knowledge of the students.


By looking
into the eyes of students, a teacher can make out confusion, lack of
understanding, element of disinterest, boredom, and willingness, etc. Through
eye contact, he gains information from students, and is a source of feedback
for teacher through which he can make his lesson successful. Through eye
contact, he understands the problem of a student and so tries to make a
solution in his lesson. A teacher dedicates his life to the noble cause of
education. He has the capability to satisfy his students. Being a well
(fountain) of wisdom, he keeps his knowledge up to the mark. As an English
teacher, he tries his best to improve his own mastery of language, “practice
makes the man perfect.” A teacher always keeps himself on practicing
vocabulary, reading English newspapers, watching English news and English
movies on TV and reading English books other than text, etc. 


Teachers inculcate in students a
habit of reading and procuring knowledge. This knowledge becomes a lifelong
source of pleasure, strength and inspiration. This also sheds his boredom or
shares his movements of pain and melancholy. With knowledge comes awareness and
with awareness come progress, culture and civilization. Teachers are the
paragons of virtue. According to Rudyard Kipling, “words are the most powerful
drug used by mankind.” A kind word and a polite gesture and a sweet smile can
win many wars. A kind word or a loving touch goes a long way in dispelling the
pall of gloom.       


Teaching is a noble as well as
challenging profession, and teachers prove themselves professional as well as a
good administrator and sympathizer. A teacher is never lenient in the matters
of discipline in the class. Administration is an important aspect of teaching,
and he takes interest in the affairs of his students inside and outside the
classes. He transfers his knowledge and other good qualities to his students to
promote the quality of education through his teaching. Being a researcher, a
teacher always improves his knowledge to dedicate his life to the noble cause
of education, and keeps his knowledge up to the mark. 


A teacher
is also a good entertainer and encourager, and he develops the habit of
encouraging and entertaining among the students. He always encourages and never
discourages his students. He guides his students in all walks of life, and
deals them in a sympathetic manner. A teacher works on accuracy more than on
fluency in a polite manner. Devotion is a key to success, and a teacher never
forgets the element of sincerity and devotion towards his profession. The words
of a teacher act as a magic spell on the tender mind of the students. God makes
man and teacher makes gentleman. Teaching career is really very attractive and
teachers produce members of parliaments, business men, manufacturers,
administrators, doctors, engineers, lawyers, politicians, skilled men, pilots
and other reasonable persons in the society.                             


To keep in mind all the importance
and responsibilities of teaching as profession, I had decided long ago (1986),
to take my career as an English teacher. Teaching is a supreme task, and a
unique job. I want to be skilled and perfect teacher to teach the students in a
better way. I will try my best, to improve the proficiency of my students in
English. I was dead interested in teaching from my school days, and English was
a favorite subject of mine. Teaching also offers varieties of challenges and
rewards. Being a teacher, I desire to bring a revolutionary change in the field
of teaching and restore the grace of teachers in the society. Teaching provides
some additional opportunities to exercise the talents. Teachers can use their
leadership talents inside and outside the class to up lift the quality
education among the students.    


I
have been teaching as English language lecturer since June1986 to date. I
taught English language and literature since June 1986 to September 2006, inPakistan.
Presently, I have been teaching as an English language lecturer in College of
Science in Al-Zulfi, Al-Qassim University, KSA, since October 2006 to October 04,
2010. From October 04, 2010 to date (same college) in Majma'ah University. KSA.
After Masters in English (language & literature), I did my B.Ed (Bachelor
in Education). This professional course encouraged me and I did my Post
Graduate Dip. TEFL and same level Dip. ELT. I didn’t discontinue my studies. I
processed Masters in TEFL (Teaching of English as a Foreign Language).
Recently, I have completed all my Course Codes successfully related to M.A.
TEFL, except Thesis. My thesis is under process.                                                         I want to
share my knowledge, joys and sorrows to my students. I took my career to be a
teacher since 1986. I also participated in different English language teaching workshops
that shows my interest in teaching. Teachers have a supreme power and have the
power to make a positive or a negative impression in the minds of the students
that they teach. Teachers put the students in different drills and exercises to
keep their body physically fit, because sound body is a symbol of sound mind.
Many teachers taught me at SSC level and really admire all but entirely
impressed by three of them, Prof. Hafiz Habibullah Abbasi (Late) retired Dean
Leepa College. AK. PAK. Mr. Muhammad Fared Khan Abbasi (Secondary School
Teacher), Mr. Talib Hussain (Secondary School Teacher). They always advised me
to pay full attention towards reading, writing, listening and speaking and
paved a way towards teaching. Mr. Muhammad Fared Khan Abbasi always motivated
me on listening and speaking (watching English news on TV and Speaking on any
topic given by him in front of my class fellows) Whereas, Mr. Talib Hussain
improved my reading and writing habits. They also motivated me to take my
career as an English teacher. The role of my above mentioned teachers was
always positive and created a change in students and I was one of them. This
thing inspired me to get on with this profession. Children are innocent and
their mind at Elementary level is like a white slab (white paper) which is
ready to be shaped by the teacher. In this respect, the role of a teacher is
unique in the society. He can bring a revolutionary change in the society
through his students. This is why I want to be a teacher.                                                                                                        I
want to be a well equipped teacher to provide them unique and latest
information and play a role in the process of up bringing new generation. A
well equipped nation can progress by leaps and bounds with the power of
knowledge. There is no doubt that a good teacher produces good generation. As a
teacher, this profession will provide me the opportunity to spend maximum time
with the students and share their feeling and their inner minds. I really love
working, sharing knowledge and participating in academic activities with the
students and this is possible in teaching. To keep in mind all above mentioned principles,
demands, and needs to reform the society, teachers would never be disappointed
by their profession.      In short, as a
teacher, I feel pleasure in teaching.              



HOW TO IMPROVE THE ABILITY OF BASIC FOUR SKILLS .



INTRODUCTION

The purpose English
teaching is to improve the students' four skills of listening, speaking,
reading and writing, with the base of necessary phonetics, large vocabulary and
good grammar.
But this is not the final purpose. The final purpose is to
lot; let the students be able to use the language.

Different questions come in mind as, why do we study English? If a man is only
good at listening and speaking, can we say that he is good at English? No, if a
man is only good at reading and writing, can we say that he is good at the
language? No, if a student is good at English, he should be able to use the
language, both in speaking and writing.

Now most of the students do better in reading and writing English than in
listening and speaking. They can read and write, but they can hardly
communicate. They can hardly express themselves with their own words. This is
partially because of our examination system, and partially of the teaching
method. We are not able to change the examination system, but we can improve
our teaching method.

Most of all the teachers like to provide the students with a lot of
knowledge-words, phrases, grammar, usages and so on; they are focusing this
thing, especially on the grammar. Yes, the students do need these, but many
teachers forget to teach them how to study English, and how to use it. So when
you are giving the knowledge to the students, don't forget to teach them all
the abilities of the four skills.





WAYS ON DEVELOPING THE FOUR ABILITIES





1.LISTENING

The teachers often speak of the four skills- listening, speaking, reading
and writing
. That means each of them is important. You can't say that you
have mastered the language without any one of them, Listening, one of the means
of language communication, is used most widely in people's daily lives, as listening
to the radio, listening to the music. In linguistics, the students are given a
lot of listening activities is a good way of enlarging their vocabulary. On the
other hand, it also helps the students improve their listening comprehension. The
students think that the most bothering and most difficult is listening
comprehension, and even some of them have difficulty in understanding their
teacher who gives lessons in English.

Without question, it is difficult for a student to understand the listening
material, if he hasn't enough vocabulary and the ability of telling the grammar
construction. It is clear that the reading speed of a material also affects.

A lot of students have their own listening habits. Some students often try to
understand each word or each sentence. They will think hard when they meet some
difficult words or sentences, and many students could understand the material
directly. This is also a reason, trying to understand each word is difficult,
and it is not necessary at all. You should catch the most important points.

Then how to improve the students' listening skill?

We know the largest
difference between mother language learning and foreign language learning is
the environment. A child can soon learn his mother language well. He has heard
a lot before he can say something and walk. Then after he is able to walk and
say, he has a chance of listening to more. Before he goes to school, he has
already been a good listener and speaker.

But for a foreign language, you can meet it only in formal places, classes, for
example, otherwise, you can hardly have a chance to meet it. So I think you
should try to let the students be in a language environment.

Let the students grasp the phonetic symbol. I think the phonetic symbol is
the base. A good intonation and phonetic depends on the base.
Oral reading
after a radio or a teacher is a good way at the beginning; Students should do
much about it.

Pay attention to the oral reading skill, It includes stress, strong form,
weak form, intonation incomplete plosive consonant, affricate consonant,
syllable
and so on. Training and practicing the oral reading is not a day's
word. The teacher must give correct information about it. There is no easy way.

Enlarge the students' knowledge about English. Encourage the students to read
something in their spare time about geography, history, culture, stories and so
on. Both listening test and listening practice are necessary, but
practice is more important.

In short, you can understand your students through listening tests. Only
through the practice can the students improve their listening comprehension.






2.SPEAKING

Speaking can't be taught
separately. It is often connected with listening. So we often speak of
listening and speaking. The traditional way of listening and speaking is
aural-oral method. Now, the new method of two-way communication is very
popular.

As we know that any teaching method has its psychological base. It is based
on behaviorism.
One of its psychological theories is that learning a
language is forming a set of new language habit
.

The aural-oral method is fit for the teaching of beginning stage. It focuses on
the practice of oral English drills. But too many drills are being
practiced without any context or given conditions. So what are learned are
isolated clauses. And it has few communicative functions.

The two-way communication makes up for the defect in communicative ability in
the traditional teaching. Two-way means the relationship of the
communication between the teacher and the students.


This relationship is connected with the communicative activities between two
people. This method is different from the traditional aural-oral method. It can
create a fresh environment for speaking English. It needs some necessary
explanations of Grammar; including some sentence structures. Hints are the
major way of practice. Teachers can control the practice wholly or partly. The
practice can also be controlled by students freely. The internal force of study
is not due to the interests in phonetic structure, but the content of the
material. The two-way communication can lengthen the dialogue limitlessly. This
is its advantage.

In short, the aural-oral method is not a out-of-date one, but a useful one, especially
it is fit for the beginning stage. It attaches the importance to the oral
drills, and has a bad communicative function. It is only used to phonetic base.
After all, the aim of the language learning is to communicate. So the two-way communication
is more effective.





3.READING

Reading is an important way of gaining information in foreign language
learning, It is a basic skill for a foreign language learner. There is a lot of
reading exercises in an examination today. But all these readings must be done
in limited time. So students are asked to read them correctly and with a
certain speed. To do this, you should change your bad reading habit and raise
your reading efficiency.

New words prevent you from reading fast. One way to overcome this problem is to
guess. There are many ways to guess the meaning of a new word. First you should
find some hints. Context, some phrases, such as "means", "refer
to", "in other words", "That is to sag"; are all the
hints. Another problem that affect your reading speed is you reading habit and
you reading skill.

Some one reads word by word. Some one reads with his finger pointing to the
words or with his head shaking. Those are all bad habits. You should read
phrase by phrase. Don't blink your eyes so often and don't shake your head. Just
move your eyeball
. If you want to get more word information, there must be
a proper distance between your eyes and the reading material.

I think browsing is an important step while you are doing you reading comprehension.
Some students begin to read at once when he get a reading material, even
without knowing, its title. But after reading for many times, he won't
understand what the article says.

I think you might read the given questions fast as well, then the material.
There is an advantage to do this. When you read the material with the
questions, you can save your time.





4.WRITING

Writing is a silent
speech. Writing is one way of providing variety in classroom procedures. It
provides a student with physical evidence of his achievements and becomes a
course whereby he can measure his improvement. It helps to consolidate the
students' grasp of vocabulary and structure, and complements the other language
skills.

Sentence is the base of an article. So we should begin our writing with
sentences. First, students should be asked to express with sentences-sentences
making, then to write short articles.

Writing is different from other skills. Learning to write is learning to use
grammar with easiness, simplicity and facts in some chronological order as
tool. Writing involves both accuracy and fluency. Required special attention on
hand writing, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, word order and word division,
sentence structure and constructions.



Kinds if writing as, CONTROL WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING, FREE WRITING. The main aim of writing is to train the students
in expressing themselves effective in good English. We can't neglect the
importance of writing. According to Bacon, "Reading maketh a full man,
conference a ready and writing an excellent man." Fair
and comprehensible hand –writing makes a man perfect in all walks of life.
Writing is a source of preserving the knowledge and a silent speech. Beautiful
hand-writing is like a beautiful flower. The responsibility of a teacher is to
repeat correct writing habit.



In short, students should be carefully taught
the art of hand-writing. Qualities of good hand-writing are as legibility,
attractiveness, uniformity, distinctiveness, good styled, speedily and correct
spaced.



EDUCATION SYSTEM AND COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT



EDUCATION SYSTEM AND COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT



“Some people say that
education system is the only critical factor to development of a country."



Education
plays a vital role in the development of a country. Therefore, some people
think education system is the only important factor for the development of a
country and they may be right.



Education
is a foundation of well developed and cultured society. It is rightly said,
‘education is a ladder for successes. If all the people of any country are
educated then they becomes broadminded, civilized and progressive forward.
Educated society improves standard of life as well.



Besides
this, education also creates a good employment opportunity and therefore
country does not have to suffer big problem like unemployment. Educated peoples
are more aware of problems such as pollution and many more. Country becomes
technologically advanced because of educated people.





Not only this, but by giving full importance
to education, the nations can get rid of problems like illiteracy, poverty,
unemployment and population growth that retard the progress of nation. The
crime rate can also be kept under check. The standards of living of the people
wil go up. If the nations want to be progressive it is very important that the
people are more educated and progressive forward. Any country can be more
technologically advanced and developed because of education.



However, there are some more factors also plays important role
in development of country. Such as governments has to encouraged people to do
so.



In conclusion, I would like to say that good education system
lead to a developed country.



FINANCIAL EDUCATION SHOULD BE A MANDATORY COMPONENT



FINANCIAL
EDUCATION SHOULD BE A MANDATORY COMPONENT OF THE SCHOOL PROGRAM:
(PERSONAL
OPINIONS
)



Children
in this modern era have all the magnificent toys, food and lots of other
interesting stuff in the market then in the past. They are bound to have a craving
on all this stuff they see. In other words, children will be spending on
anything they want or find it interesting to them. Even some adults these days
have some kind of craving to the thing they find it amazing.

If financial education starts at the very beginning of the school years, this
will help them to understand the value of money. Children
should also be taught to manage their expenses and ways to spend wisely.

When a child is being taught this in the school program, the child will be able
to apply it when they are out to purchase or when have left the school years.
They will not be cheated when they are young and will not only benefit their
families but also the country that they live when they are older. However, there are some children that are capable to
handle their financial in a very positive way even before they learned it from
school.
These children would have learnt from their families or
people around them. They are more well manage, compare the other children from
families background that a richer where spending are not a problem to them.



My conclusion is, "children regardless of their background
should be taught financial education from school at the very beginning then
only parents guide them from home as well."



WHY DO PEOPLE MOVE TO WESTERN COUNTRIES



WHY DO PEOPLE EVERY YEAR MOVE TO ENGLISH_ SPEAKING COUNTRIES (SUCH
AS AUSTRALIA, BRITAIN, CANADA OR AMERICAIN ORDER TO STUDY IN VARIOUS
INSTITUTIONS
)



Nowadays,
language becomes a major factor to become a successful person. Many people
prefer to study abroad to English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada,
Britain, or America, because English is an international language. Modern age
is the age of science and English is a language of science. There is no doubt
that the best way to increase the English language skill is use English
language daily so if people study in English speaking countries, their English
skill will be improved automatically and it will give them some advantages such
as they can work in many countries or they are able travelling to many
different places without studying other languages.



The purpose of learning English is to improve the four basic skills
as, listening, speaking, reading and writing, with the base of necessary
phonetics, large vocabulary and good grammar.
But this is not the final
purpose. The final purpose is to lot; let the students be able to use the
language.



Different questions come in mind as, why do we study English or
desire to study in Western countries, like Australia, Canada, Britain or
America? If a man is only good at listening and speaking, can we say that he is
good at English? No, if a man is only good at reading and writing, can we say
that he is good at the language? No, if a student is good at English, he should
be able to use the language, both in speaking and writing and this thing is
possible only in Western countries.





Now most of the students do better in reading and writing English than in listening
and speaking. They can read and write, but they can hardly communicate. Giving
the knowledge to the students, it's essential to teach them all the abilities
of the four skills. Perfection in basic four skills is possible in western countries;
therefore, countless people desire to attend such western institutions.



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY (REASONS)



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY? (SPECIFIC REASONS)



People attend college or university for many
different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, and
increased knowledge).



Many
people attend to university or collage after their high school years for
several reasons which they choose by them self. I believe the most reason that
why people attend university or collage to have new experiences on life, to
prepare for career, and to increase their knowledge of their personality on
life.



Firstly, many people go to university or collage to
have new experience on life. Many students leave their home and move to live by
them self when they go to university. This is the first time that they had to
create resolution by them self without their parents help. Creating resolution
will increase their knowledge of themselves. Moreover, students on the
university can meet different students from different nationalities and
religions so students can learn about different culture around the world.

Secondly, many people go to
university or collage to prepare for career. Career training is becoming more
important nowadays to young people than old people. At collage, students learn
many skills about the real career life and they intern to internship with a lot
of chances. All of these things prepare them for the career life.



Also,
students go to university or collage to increase their self-knowledge of their
personality on life. They attend for that to increase their knowledge in
subject which they find interesting.



 For example,
"many students study science because they are interested in science but
they work on the business area."



To sum up, I think people should not only
focus on a career when they go to university or collage. They have to follow to
have new experience and knowledge about their personality and the huge world
around them which they live in.



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY (REASONS)



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY? (SPECIFIC REASONS)



People attend college or university for many
different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, and
increased knowledge).



Many
people attend to university or collage after their high school years for
several reasons which they choose by them self. I believe the most reason that
why people attend university or collage to have new experiences on life, to
prepare for career, and to increase their knowledge of their personality on
life.



Firstly, many people go to university or collage to
have new experience on life. Many students leave their home and move to live by
them self when they go to university. This is the first time that they had to
create resolution by them self without their parents help. Creating resolution
will increase their knowledge of themselves. Moreover, students on the
university can meet different students from different nationalities and
religions so students can learn about different culture around the world.

Secondly, many people go to
university or collage to prepare for career. Career training is becoming more
important nowadays to young people than old people. At collage, students learn
many skills about the real career life and they intern to internship with a lot
of chances. All of these things prepare them for the career life.



Also,
students go to university or collage to increase their self-knowledge of their
personality on life. They attend for that to increase their knowledge in
subject which they find interesting.



For example,
"many students study science because they are interested in science but
they work on the business area."



To sum up, I think people should not only
focus on a career when they go to university or collage. They have to follow to
have new experience and knowledge about their personality and the huge world
around them which they live in.



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY (REASONS)



WHY DO PEOPLE ATTEND COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY? (SPECIFIC REASONS)



People attend college or university for many
different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, and
increased knowledge).



Many
people attend to university or collage after their high school years for
several reasons which they choose by them self. I believe the most reason that
why people attend university or collage to have new experiences on life, to
prepare for career, and to increase their knowledge of their personality on
life.



Firstly, many people go to university or collage to
have new experience on life. Many students leave their home and move to live by
them self when they go to university. This is the first time that they had to
create resolution by them self without their parents help. Creating resolution
will increase their knowledge of themselves. Moreover, students on the
university can meet different students from different nationalities and
religions so students can learn about different culture around the world.

Secondly, many people go to
university or collage to prepare for career. Career training is becoming more
important nowadays to young people than old people. At collage, students learn
many skills about the real career life and they intern to internship with a lot
of chances. All of these things prepare them for the career life.



Also,
students go to university or collage to increase their self-knowledge of their
personality on life. They attend for that to increase their knowledge in
subject which they find interesting.



 For example,
"many students study science because they are interested in science but
they work on the business area."



To sum up, I think people should not only
focus on a career when they go to university or collage. They have to follow to
have new experience and knowledge about their personality and the huge world
around them which they live in.



DIETING CAN CHANGE A PERSON'S LIFE FOR THE BETTER



DIETING CAN CHANGE A PERSON'S
LIFE FOR THE BETTER OR RUINS ONE'S HEALTH COMPLETELY:

(
PERSONAL OPINIONS)



Almost
90% of the women today want a beautiful figure. That is why we are able to find
a diet programme almost everywhere in the country. Most of the women have taught
and gone on a diet before either to slim down or just for health problem.



A
proper diet program me will help you not only to slim down but also to have a healthier
eating habit. For instance taking more vegetables and fruits that meat avoid
fried food and carbonated drinks. For a diet programme we shouldn’t cut oneself
from food and water. There are some diet programmes from the doctors that help
you to have a healthy heart like the “Three day diet” which we can find on the
internet. This programme allows you to eat fruits and also some meat. This way
of dieting you will be able to avoid some of the health problems in the future
like diabetes or a heart attack.

However some people do not only go on a diet but they avoid eating and go
hungry for the whole day. All they have is just either water or juices. Also
there a people who buy special diet programme over the counter like taking
pills which are not approved by the health department and without consulting a
doctor first. They do not follow the basic rules of dieting and this will lead
them to some serious health problems like dysfunctional of some body parts or,
even worse, death. In my opinion there is nothing wrong going on a diet as long
as we follow the correct way of eating and for a good reason to diet.



IMPORTANCE OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT



CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT



Classroom Management is a term used by
teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run
smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies the
prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of
teaching for many teachers and indeed experiencing problems in this area causes
some to leave teaching altogether. In 1981 the UN National Educational
Association reported that 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into
teaching if they had to decide again. A major reason was "negative student
attitudes and discipline.



According to (Hayman) an educationist,
once a teacher loses control of their classroom, it becomes increasingly more
difficult for them to regain that control. Classroom management is closely
linked to issues of motivation, discipline, and respect. A large part of
traditional classroom management involves behavior modification; although many
teachers see using behavioral approaches alone as overly try to be consistent
in enforcing these rules and procedures.



What is
Classroom Management?



Classroom Management involves teacher
actions to create a learning environment that encourage positive social
interaction, active engagement in learning and self-motivation. Successful classroom
management involves not only responding effectiveness when problems occur, but
preventing the frequent occurrence of problems. The most effective decisions in
classroom management are based on a clear concept of the goals and intended
outcomes that a teacher wishes to accomplish.



Strategies for
Classroom Management



ORGANIZATION



Rules and procedures should be
developed in conjunction with teaching strategies that help students meet their
personal and academic needs.



-Arrange seating in a U-shape, rows or
a circle, so that you can see and easily move close to students.    



 -Post a daily
schedule and discuss any changes each morning.



-Engage students until you have given
clear instructions for the upcoming activity.



-Encourage students to take responsibility
for their learning.



-Establish routines for collecting
homework, distributing papers, etc.



-Move around the room and attend to
individual needs.



-Provide simple step-by-step
directions.



-Remind students of key procedures
associated with the upcoming lesion.



-Use group competition to stimulate
more orderly transitions.



-Develop transition activities –
Implement structural activities that help students make transitions between
active periods and quieter learning activities.



COMMUNICATION



Effective communication is the
foundation for good classroom management. Communication skills can be divided
into two categories: Sending skills and Receiving skills.



Sending
Skills
(skills used when speaking to someone)



-Deal in the present. Information is
more useful when it is shared at the earliest appropriate opportunity.



-Talk directly to students rather than
about them. When teacher do this, students are shown respect, and receive
accurate information about adults' feelings.



-Speak courteously. This creates positive
role model for students.



- Take responsibilities for statements
by using the personal pronoun "I" Example: When I'm interrupted I get
distracted and have difficulty helping other students.



-Make statement rather than asking
questions. When dealing with students' behaviors, questions often create
defensiveness.



Receiving
Skills
(Skills or Techniques for becoming a more
effective listener
)



-Use empathic, no evaluative
listening. This makes the speaker feel that he or she has been clearly heard
and that the feelings expressed are acceptable.



-Use paraphrasing, active listing, or
reflecting in order to make the speaker feel heard. This allows the listener to
become involved in the dialogue.



-Make eye contact and be aware of
nonverbal messages.



-Suggest strong leadership by using
body carriage, facial expressions, and gestures.



MONITORING



Often misbehavior occurs because
students find "acting out" more interesting than a boring lesion or
more rewarding than another failure experience. Students may also misbehave
when they are not involved in the learning activity, do not understand the
task, or cannot obtain assistance when it is needed. Following are useful
techniques for responding to minor classroom disruptions:



-Scan the classroom frequently in
order to notice and respond to potential problems.



-React calmly and quickly to a
student's disruptive behavior in order to create a positive ripple effect.



-Make positive initial contact with
students by praising the positive behavior that competes with the negative
behavior.



-Remind students of the classroom rule
or procedure that they are not demonstrating.



-Make students clearly aware of the
rules and procedures and the consequence for violations.



-Give students clear cues indicating
that continuation of a behavior will evoke the specified consequences.



-Employ consistent consequences for
misbehaviors.



-Inform students that they are
choosing the consequence of their behavior.



-Use consequences which are educational
in nature.



-When one or two students are being
very disruptive, focus other students in the class on their task. Then find a
time to talk quietly with the disruptive students.



DELIVERY OF
INSTRUCTION



Leading educators over the past
several years have emphasized that quality of instruction is a key factor
influencing students' behavior and achievement. Response to student misbehavior
is most effective when it maintains or enhances the student's dignity and
self-esteemed and encourages the student to be responsible for his or her own
behavior.



-Involve students in evaluating their
own work as well as your instruction.



-Hand out an outline, definitions, or
study guide to help students organize their thoughts and focus their attention.



-Ask the question and give ample wait
time before calling on the student.



-Vary style as well as the content of
instruction in order to address diverse student learning styles.



-Provide work of appropriate
difficulty to complement varying ability levels.



-Relate materials to students' lives
whenever possible.



-Be animated, create anticipation, and
use activities to each student interest or increase student motivation to
participate.



Engage student learning through cooperative
group work, competitive teams, group discussions, debates, and role playing.      

TOP TEN CLASSROOM RULES



TOP TEN CLASSROOM RULES   



1. Keep students on task



2. Use
classroom procedures to create consistency



3. Always
check for understanding



4. Create a
safe classroom environment using respect



5. Use
classroom consequences to correct wrong student     



    behavior



6. Use the
tone of your voice and body language to



    communicate information



7.
Academically challenge every student



8. To
easily get your students' attention



9. Use a
classroom seating chart



10.
Increase participation by using collaborative learning and                                      



  group projects.



WHY DO WE STUDY ENGLISH?



WHY DO WE STUDY ENGLISH?



We Study English because:



-English is an International Language.



-       English is a language
of Science.



-       English helps in all
walks of life.



-       English is spoken and
understood in          



 all over the World.    





I. Introduction

The purpose of English
teaching is to improve the students' four skills of listening, speaking,
reading and writing, with the base of necessary phonetics, large vocabulary and
good grammar, But this is not the final purpose. The final purpose is to lot
let students be able to use the language.

Why do we study English? If a man is only good at listening and speaking, can we say that
he is good at English? No, If a man is only good at reading and writing, can we
say that he is good at the language? No, If a student is good at English, he
should be able to use the language, both in speaking and writing.

Now most of the students do better in reading and writing English than in
listening and speaking. They can read and write, but they can hardly
communicate. They can hardly express themselves with their own words. This is
partially because of our examination system, and partially of the teaching
method . We are not able to change the examination system, but we can improve
our teaching method.


Most of all the
teachers like to provide the students with a lot of knowledge-words, phrases,
grammar, usages and so on, They are focusing these thing, especially on the
grammar. Yes, the students do need these, but many teachers forget to teach
them how to study English, and how to use it. So when you are giving the
knowledge to the students, don't forget to teach them all the abilities of the
four skills.

II. Ways on developing
the four abilities


1.Listening

The teachers often
speak of the four skills- listening, speaking, reading and writing. That means
each of them is important. You can't say that you have mastered the language
without any one of them, Listening, one of the means of language communication,
is used most widely in people's daily lives. About 45%of an adult's time
concerns listening to other people , listening to the radio, listening to the
music. In linguistics ¬giving the students a lot of listening activities is a
good way of enlarging their vocabulary. On the other hand, it also helps the
students improve their listening comprehension.

I have done an
investigation. About 43.2% of the students think that the most bothering and
most difficult is listening comprehension, and even some of them have
difficulty in understanding their teacher who gives lessons in English.

Without question, it is difficult of a middle school student to understand the
listening material, if he hasn't enough vocabulary and the ability of telling
the grammar construction. In my investigation, about 35% of the students with
low listening comprehension thing this is because they don't understand or know
the knowledge about linguistic, they are not able to tell the means of a what
they have heard. In my another investigation, students were asked to listen to
a dialogue of 244 words, in which the words and grammar have already been
learned. But 80% of them thought it was too difficult. Then, using the same
dialogue as a reading comprehension material, I found only 5% of them thought
it was a little difficult, on the other hand the response ability is also
another reason.

It is clear that the
reading speed of a material also affects. About 43% of the students thought
that the material was read too fast and they couldn't follow.

A lot of students have their own listening habits. Some students often tries to
understand each word or each sentence. They will think hard when they meet some
difficult words or sentences, and a great many students could understand the
material directly, They often translate the English into Chinese in their
heart, thinking that only in this way can the sentence be understood. This is
also a reason, trying to understand each word is difficult, and it is not
necessary at all. You should catch the most important points.

Then how to improve the students' listening skill?

We know the largest difference between mother language learning and foreign
language learning is the environment. A child can soon learn his mother
language well. He has heard a lot before he can say something and walk. Then
after he is able to walk and say, he has a chance of listening to more. Before
he goes to school, he has already been a good listener and speaker.

But for a foreign language, you can meet it only in formal places, classes, for
example, otherwise, you can hardly have a chance to meet it. So I think you
should try to let the students be in a language environment.

Let the students grasp the phonetic symbol. I think the phonetic symbol is the
base. A good intonation and phonetic depends on the base. Oral reading after a
radio or a teacher is a good way at the beginning, Students should do much
about it.

Pay attention to the oral reading skill, It includes stress, strong form, weak
form, intonation incomplete plosive consonant, affricate consonant, syllable
and so on. Training and practicing the oral reading is not a day's word. The
teacher must give correct information about it . There is no easy way.

Enlarge the students' knowledge about English. Encourage the students to read something
in their spare time about geography, history, culture, stories and so on. For
example, there are two materials of the same difficulty. One explains something
about China's Spring Festival, the other is about Thanks giving Day of the
western countries. The former is easy to understand but the latter is more
difficult. Why? It is clearly because the students know little about the
latter.

Both listening test and listening practice are necessary, but practice is more
important.

You can understand your students through listening tests. Only through the
practice can the students improve their listening comprehension.





2.Speaking

Speaking can't be taught separately.
It is often connected with listening. So we often speak of listening and
speaking.

The traditional way of listening and speaking is aural-oral method. Now, the
new method of two-way communication is very popular.

As you know that any teaching method has its psychological base. The aural-oral
method began in the 1940's. It is based on behaviourism. One of its
psychological theory is that learning a language is forming a set of new
language habit.

This is its usual process: Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement.

The aural-oral method is fit for the teaching of beginning stage. It focuses on
the practice of oral English drills. But too many drills are being practiced
without any context or given conditions. So what is learned is isolated
clauses. And it has few communicative functions .

The two-way communication makes up for the defect in communicative ability in
the traditional teaching. Two-way means the relationship of the communication
between the teacher and the students.

This relationship is connected with the communicative activities between two
people. This method is different from the traditional aural-oral method. But it
also bases on the process of S-R-R. So we call it a mew type of aural-oral
method has some peculiarities.

It can create a fresh environment for speaking English.

It needs some necessary explanations of Grammar, including some sentence
structures.







3.Reading

Reading is an
important way of gaining information in foreign language learning, It is a
basic skill for a foreign language learner. There is a lot of reading exercises
in an examination today. But all these readings must be done in limited time.
So students are asked to read them correctly and with a certain speed. To do
this, you should change your bad reading habit and raise your reading
efficiency.

New words prevent you from reading fast. One way to overcome this problem is to
guess. There are many ways to guess the meaning of a new word. First you should
find some hints. Context, some phrases, such as "means", "refer
to", "in other words", "That is to sag"; are all the
hints.





4.Writing

Writing is one way of
providing variety in classroom procedures. It provides a student with physical
evidence of his achievements and becomes a course whereby he can measure his
improvement. It helps to consolidate the students' grasp of vocabulary and
structure, and complements the other language skills.

Sentence is the base of an article. So we should begin our writing with
sentences. First, students should be asked to express with sentences-sentences
making, then to write short articles.





III. conclusion

While you are training
these four skills, you'd better make full use of your teaching instrument use
varieties of ways to stimulate the students' interests.

Generally speaking these four skills can't be separated. People often say
"First listening and speaking, then reading and writing". That's
right. But I think this way of saying is fit for the beginning stage. For a
senior middle school student, reading and writing is more important.

Before you are going to have a new lesson, do reading and writing first. Ask
students to read the text in advance, and do some exercises connected with the
text.

Listening and speaking are the major ways while teaching the new lesson. Be
sure to let the lesson go on in a foreign language situation.

You can ask the students questions about the text, do some discussion, check
the students' homework. This helps students raise their ability of listening
and speaking. It also helps to understand or comprehend the text and the
sentences.





IS ENGLISH THE KEY OF ACCESS THE WONDERS OF THE MODERN WORLD



Is English the key to access the
wonders of the modern world?





The spread of English in the
world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns but also of the
compliance of the governments associated with the “expanding circle” Colombia
is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government



is implementing a National
Bilingualism Project, where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of
English over all other languages spoken in the country. One of the prevalent
discourses in the spread of English is that it gives unlimited access to the
wonders of the modern world as science, technology, money, power, international
communication, intercultural understanding, entertainment, and so on. This is
only one side of the coin, because not everybody enjoys these benefits of speaking
English and not everybody has access to acquire it. Nevertheless, the
discourses that present English as bringing only benefits has been distributed
and continues circulating thanks to those who hold power. This article intends
to challenge those discourses by a presenting a Critical Discourse Analysis of
the document Basic standards for competences in foreign languages:
English as a key to access unlimited benefits, all of which can be eventually
converted into economic profits. Access to economic power is then an overarching
framework in which the other forms of access feed into: Access to an imagined
community of English speakers, access to equity in the distribution of social
goods, and access to knowledge.



WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH IN YOUR PERSONAL LIFE



WHAT
IS THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH IN YOUR PERSONAL LIFE?



Using
English effectively and making a good living have much in common. The study of
English encompasses much more than the mechanics of grammar, punctuation and
spelling. Through preparatory and advanced courses in literature and
composition, students are afforded the opportunity to sharpen their critical
reading and writing skills. English develops the students' ability to
communicate and also fosters a strong liberal arts background. Such a
background gives students not only marketable communication skills, but also an
understanding of the history and development of civilization. Careers in
education have provided satisfying occupations for English majors in the past
and will continue to do so. However, the ability to handle language effectively
and clearly is valuable in any occupation the college graduate may pursue. In
fact, the English major is invaluable preparation for many professional careers.
Professional Educational Institutions find that students who have specialized
narrowly in their undergraduate educations often enter without broad general
knowledge and without the skills of communication necessary for success in
their chosen professions. Results of extended studies indicate that a major in
English is particularly effective as pre-professional training for students
going into law, business or government.



 “English is without a doubt the actual
universal language” said Carlos Carrion Torres of Brazil
.
While English is not an official language in most countries, it
is the language most often taught as a second language. English is most widely
used in communicating around the world. The information that the researchers
gathered about communication and English made them realized that the two
terminologies must be always together. Good communication creates a good
ambience and relationship between everyone in every organization as
according
to Ms. Bambina Buenaventura, Language is now considered a skill, in fact, big
companies, both here and abroad, are now looking for good English communication
skills among potential employees, sadly, these companies are disappointed. Sad
to say that even the students nowadays are not practicing effective
communication;



Some really don’t want to
practice it and some are practicing it in the most improper way in the form of
the so-called “tallish”, a combination of Filipino and English words in one
sentence. The researchers became interested with the English communication
proficiency of the secondary students nowadays; those who can afford to enroll
in college will be privileged to learn and be trained more with their
communication skills, but what about those students who cannot afford to be
upgraded in tertiary level? Of course they’ll apply for a job to make a living,
but the problem is, even the few available jobs for high school graduates
require good communication skills, and unfortunately, as the researchers have
noticed, most high school students are not prepared for this kind of challenge.
Some of the students are good in written communication but not that good when
it comes to oral because some are shy to let others hear their English, or
afraid to execute a wrong grammars or bad sentence.



English
is the International Language and is one of the most popular and most spoken in
the technology world. We need to know English language in order to study any
science subject or any computer language. We need to know English to
communicate effectively too many developed countries. English is very much
important in our life...it is necessary in each and every field. If we know
English we never feel tongue tide in front of others. It's a widely spoken
language. People take pride in speaking English .if we don't know English, we
will leg behind the other. English is a need of hour. Today we can't deny the
importance of English in our life. To anyone who lives in an English speaking
country, it is of vital importance. Language is always very important, because
it is the means of communication. If you cannot speak the language of a place,
it will be very difficult to communicate with the people. And so it is an
absolute necessity. We communicate with others every day. Whether we just say
'hello' or have a long conversation, or whether we give or follow instructions,
or weather at home or at the shop or in the workplace. Communication is a tool
for everyday life-Everyone uses it every day. And language makes it a whole lot
easier, so everyone learns to speak their native language. And English is the
most widely spoken language in the world, and if you know how to speak it, it
will be an invaluable tool of communication. You can develop your knowledge for
betterment of your knowledge. As long as you educate yourself, you will come
across many new things. There is no end for learning.



PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE FIELD OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL EDUCAT



PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE FIELD OF SCIENTIFIC
AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION



In the modern world, the
importance of highly specialized scientific and technical education is well
recognized. But a broad education is also important, the case for liberal or general
education (the terms are used interchangeably) at the university level in
developing countries. This argument may seem unusual and perhaps also
controversial, but it reflects the Task Force’s view that this type of
education could play a more constructive role than is commonly realized in
helping developing countries to achieve their long-term socio-economic goals. A
higher education system should meet



many different goals. These
include:



-satisfying demand from students
for an increasingly sophisticated and     



 
rewarding education;



- training the people needed to
run a modern society and contribute to its    



 
further advancement;



- providing a forum in which a
society can examine its problems and identify



 
appropriate solutions; and



-offering a setting in which a
society’s culture and values can be studied and



 
developed. In a stratified higher education system, institutions of
different types fill these needs in different ways. Professional and vocational
schools meet some needs, while open universities and distance-learning
institutions satisfy others. However, developing countries need to be sure that
some of their institutions are providing a sufficient breadth of education to give
students the abilities that are needed in a rapidly changing world. A general
education is an excellent form of preparation for the flexible, knowledge-based
careers that increasingly dominate the upper tiers of the modern labor force.
With knowledge growing at unprecedented rates, higher education systems must
equip students with the ability to manage and assimilate greatly expanded quantities
of information. A specific expertise in technology will almost inevitably
become obsolete. The ability to learn, however, will continue to provide
valuable insurance against the vagaries of a rapidly changing economic environment.



WHAT IS GENERAL OR LIBERAL EDUCATION



What is a General or Liberal
Education?



A general or liberal education
has been defined as “a curriculum [or part of a curriculum] aimed at imparting
general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities in contrast to
a professional, vocational, and  technical
curriculum.”
It is characterized by its focus on “the whole development of an
individual, apart from his occupational training. It includes the civilizing of
his life purposes, the refining of his emotional reactions, and the maturing of
his understanding of the nature of things according to the best knowledge of
our time.”  These words were written over
50 years ago. There are a variety of opinions regarding the characteristics of
a liberally educated person. A recent formulation by a member of our Task Force
describes such a person as someone who:



v  can think and write clearly, effectively, and critically, and
who can    



         
 communicate with precision, cogency,
and force;



v  has a critical appreciation of the ways in which we gain
knowledge and   



 
         Understanding of the
universe, of society, and of ourselves;



v  has a broad knowledge of other cultures and other times, and is
able to   



          
 make decisions based on reference
to the wider world and to the     



           historical forces that have shaped
it;



v  has some understanding of and experience in thinking
systematically about moral and ethical problems; and



v  has achieved depth in some field of knowledge. This definition
focuses on cognitive skills. It concerns teaching people to think and to learn.
It also stresses breadth of knowledge across a number of disciplines. A
liberally educated person should have an informed acquaintance with the mathematical
and experimental methods of the physical and biological sciences; with the main
forms of analysis and the historical and quantitative techniques needed to
investigate the development of a modern society; with some of the important scholarly,
literary, and artistic achievements of the past; and with humanity’s major
religious and philosophical concepts. A liberal education should leave students
excited by the world of learning and prepared to continue their education, both
in the short term—through in-depth study of a specialist discipline—and in the
long term as they continually refresh



their
knowledge in formal and informal ways, through the process of lifelong
learning. In some parts of the world, the term “liberal education” has a
conservative or traditional connotation, implying a particular way of looking
at the world. The Task Force, however, is not advocating the universal
application of a particular curriculum or teaching method across different
cultures. Instead, it is recommending that each country design its own general
curriculum to fit the structure and values of its higher education system.
Indeed, the exercise of developing a national— though not nationalistic—general
education curriculum should be socially useful, requiring a country to examine
the state and direction of human knowledge and establish priorities for its
higher education system. As they design and impart a sound, comprehensive educational
foundation, educators need to:



v  take into account their own economic, social, political, and
institutional  



 
         environment;



v  look for the common unifying themes that pull together a
curriculum and make it more than an arbitrary combination of alternative elements;



v  move beyond limits of traditional disciplinary boundaries to
explore the



relationships
among different subjects and ways of thinking about the world; can think and
write clearly, effectively, and critically, and who can communicate with precision,
cogency, and force;



v  has a critical appreciation of the ways in which we gain
knowledge and   



 
         Understanding of the
universe, of society, and of ourselves;



v  has a broad knowledge of other cultures and other times, and is
able to   



make decisions based on reference to the wider world and to the
historical  forces that have shaped it;



v  has some understanding of and experience in thinking
systematically about moral and ethical problems; and



v  has achieved depth in some field of knowledge. This definition
focuses on cognitive skills. It concerns teaching people to think and to learn.
It also stresses breadth of knowledge across a number of disciplines. A
liberally educated person should have an informed acquaintance with the mathematical
and experimental methods of the physical and biological sciences; with the main
forms of analysis and the historical and quantitative techniques needed to
investigate the development of a modern society; with some of the important scholarly,
literary, and artistic achievements of the past; and with humanity’s major
religious and philosophical concepts. A liberal education should leave students
excited by the world of learning and prepared to continue their education, both
in the short term—through in-depth study of a specialist discipline — and in
the long term as they continually refresh



their
knowledge in formal and informal ways, through the process of lifelong
learning. In some parts of the world, the term “liberal education” has a
conservative or traditional connotation, implying a particular way of looking
at the world. The Task Force, however, is not advocating the universal
application of a particular curriculum or teaching method across different
cultures. Instead, it is recommending that each country design its own general
curriculum to fit the structure and values of its higher education system.
Indeed, the exercise of developing a national — though not nationalistic — general
education curriculum should be socially useful, requiring a country to examine
the state and direction of human knowledge and establish priorities for its
higher education system. As they design and impart a sound, comprehensive educational
foundation, educators need to:



v  take into account their own economic, social, political, and
institutional  



             environment;



v  look for the common unifying themes that pull together a
curriculum and make it more than an arbitrary combination of alternative elements;



v  move beyond limits of traditional disciplinary boundaries to
explore the  relationships among
different subjects and ways of thinking about the world;



WHY SHOULD RECEIVE A LIBERAL EDUCATION



Who Should Receive a Liberal
Education?



Depending on the student and his
or her goals, different levels of general education are possible.
These include:



v  a basic grounding for all higher education students, whatever
type of institution they



attend or
course they study;



v  a discrete and substantial component of general education, which
helps broaden the experience of students engaged in specialist, professional,
or technical study; and



v  an intensive general education curriculum that provides exceptionally
promising, intellectual oriented students with a solid basis for their careers
or for advanced specialist study. Within a differentiated higher education
system,



the
more intensive programs will almost certainly be offered at the most selective
universities, with the majority of professional, scientific, and technical
courses remaining more narrowly focused. Selective universities prepare many of
those who aspire to leadership roles, and for them a preparation for only the initial
stages of a career is no longer sufficient. Path-finding individuals must
update and acquire new, and often very different, skills. General education is
ideally suited to this process of lifelong learning, providing the cognitive orientation
and skills needed to facilitate continual re-education. However, general
education should not be confined to a few traditional universities. The capacity
for lifelong learning is increasingly important for the many people who face major
career shifts. Mature students, for instance,



often
return to education with a determination to change the direction of their
lives. Many look for study opportunities outside the traditional university
system.



 For example, through distance learning. As
noted earlier, women also commonly leave the labor force because of family
obligations. Flexibility and the ability to learn new skills have a significant
impact on how successfully they return, often after a decade or more.



Increasing,
the supply of general education can also help to promote social equity and mobility.
In some countries, such as parts of Africa, India, and Pakistan, a narrow and
privileged segment of the population has already received its broad education
at elite secondary institutions that offer elaborate and extensive general
education programs. As higher education systems expand, they must become more
tolerant at points of entry, while ensuring that quality at the point of exit
is maintained. This means shouldering an increased share of the burden of
providing general education, and ensuring that those who have not had a broad
secondary education have the chance to catch up and fulfill their potential.



WHY IS GENERAL EDUCATION RELEVANT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES



Why Is General Education Relevant
for Developing Countries?



Does general education deserve
support in the developing world, or is it just a luxury for the wealthy
countries?
The Task Force (means Educationists)
is convinced that general education has a clear, practical impact on
society, well beyond the love of learning and human development it promotes. Both
industrial and developing countries need leaders, educated citizens, and
trained workers for industry, government and politics, and academia.
A
liberal education enhances the chances that individuals will be able to fulfill
these roles with distinction. At present, many developing countries are overly
dependent on the industrial countries to offer a broadly based education to a
few of their
(richer) citizens. Women are especially disadvantaged by this state of
affairs, with many families, especially those in conservative societies, frowning
upon young women traveling abroad to study. General education also has a
clear practical impact on a society. It can promote responsible citizenship,
ethical behavior, educational ambition, professional development in a broad
range of fields, and even global integration.
It prevents students from
becoming “Balkanized” in narrowly focused disciplines and fosters cohesion across
cohorts who's more talented and motivated students are familiarized with a core
body of knowledge, some of which is unique to their own culture and some of
which is universal. General education also promotes civil society through its contribution
to broad-mindedness, critical thinking, and communication skills, all of which
are essential elements of effective participatory democracy. It should foster
tolerance and ethical values, helping to encourage the social awareness and
philanthropy that are vital to a society’s health and stability. General
education is also important in the development process. It helps society look
at the social and ethical questions raised by new development policies and
projects, ensuring that a country’s long-term interests are given priority over
short-term gains. Within the education sector, it encourages countries to
define national intellectual priorities and promote an intellectual identity
through the process of defining the content of a general curriculum that meets
nationally specific needs. Finally, better general education may help reduce
the brain drain. Providing in country general education is less expensive than
sending undergraduates abroad. For example, there are roughly 350,000
developing-country graduate and undergraduate students in the United States
alone, at a total cost of approximately US billion per year, which exceeds
the individual gross national product of more than half the world’s countries.

Students who are educated at home are more likely to remain at home, perhaps
even for graduate study. Even in cases where students go abroad for graduate
study — and that is the largest group — they are more likely to want to return to
a society that has offered them an intellectually stimulating environment
during their undergraduate career.



WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTACLES IN DEVELOPING WORLD REGARDING LIBER



What are the Major Obstacles in Developing
World Regarding Liberal Education?



In the developing world, the concept of liberal education is
associated with a variety of



obstacles. While some are economic, the philosophical ones may
be more significant.



The first obstacle is the issue of costs and benefits.
High-quality liberal education is not



inexpensive. It requires more varied faculty resources,
interactive rather than passive



teaching techniques, seminars in place of lectures, and perhaps
a longer period spent in



school. But the payoff to a high-quality liberal education is
not immediate, and it has a large



non pecuniary component that is difficult to measure. Funding is
clearly problematic, but the



more extensive general education programs are not meant for all,
or even the majority, of



students.



They should be aimed at the brightest and most highly motivated
in any cohort,



with a broader cross-section of students offered less intensive
forms of general education.



The Task Force attaches great importance to this, as it is far
less expensive and time-consuming than offering such an education to all. Aiming
higher education programs at the



brightest and most motivated students should not be
objectionable or characterized as elitism in the old sense.
First, advantage should accrue
to an individual because of intellectual capacities and efforts, and not
because of social class or wealth.
Second, the Task Force advocates special programs for disadvantaged
groups at all stages of education, so that these citizens are increasingly able
to take advantage of the best educational opportunities.
Third,



we recognize the value of some general education in nearly all
forms of higher education,



with specific programs designed and modified for different types
of student and school.



These considerations will not eliminate financial concerns, but
they should lessen the problem. However, the problem of different abilities
remains. Not all individuals are qualified



for the same training or the same tasks, given that some tasks
are more difficult than



others. This implies that inequalities in some areas are a
natural outcome. Educating the



most able for positions of leadership in all spheres of life has
to be in the national interest;



it is a major aspect of stratification.



We have already noted that, while the connection between the
short-term needs of the labor market and general education may be weak, in the
longer run general education is an excellent investment for both individuals and
nations. Some believe that general education



is at odds with the trend toward increasing specialization
within the labor force, especially



the upper tiers.



 On the contrary, high-quality
general education strengthens disciplinary specialization by providing a solid foundation
for advanced learning and specialization. It also provides a common
intellectual currency for interaction among individuals with diverse
specializations.



Because general education involves in-depth and open examination
of ideas and assumptions



of all kinds, it sometimes appears threatening to those who have
an interest in preserving the status quo. That desire, however, represents the
very opposite of development. Highlighting the value of liberal education for
effective leadership may also pose an implicit challenge to the credentials of leaders
who themselves received different training, and sometimes very little formal
education. Of course, a more educated leadership is one indicator of socio economic
progress. Some will ask why market forces have not created a greater supply of
general education if it offers so many benefits. The reasons relate to a
disparity between the long-term public interest and short-term needs.



 General education is not
part of the academic tradition in most developing countries. In addition,
students are interested in immediate, and perhaps more certain, returns, especially
when education loans and scholarships are difficult to obtain. High-quality general
education tends to be expensive, deterring its provision in both public and
private institutions. However, especially in the long run, societies will do
well to serve the public interest even if market forces do not create the
necessary incentives. General education is, in this sense, in the same category
as basic research or equitable access.



CONCLUSION / SUMMARY OF THE TERM, LIBERAL EDUCATION



Conclusion / Summary of the
Term, "Liberal Education."





In some countries, the term “liberal education” recalls colonial
domination and education.



This is unfortunate. While this particular method of education
has Western roots, our emphasis is on an educational approach developed by each
country, paying specific attention to its own culture and its particular needs.
The goal for all countries is similar — a broad, flexible, interactive
education that addresses the whole human being — but the road to achieving this
goal is unique and cannot simply be transplanted from one country



to another. The time has come for national debates to begin.
What is an educated
person? Once a country has accepted the general education
concept, what are the implications
for curricula and other aspects of training? This debate is
under way in a number of
developing countries.
Some institutions in
India, the Republic
of Korea, Nigeria, Pakistan,
the Philippines,
parts of Latin America,
and some others already practice
general education,



although the quality of these efforts is uneven. Most recently,
the National University of Singapore has engaged a major curriculum.



MAJOR ROLE OF ENGLISH IN ALL WALKS OF LIFE : PERSONAL COMMENTS



MAJOR ROLE OF ENGLISH IN ALL WALKS OF LIFE (PERSONAL COMMENTS)



No one denies the importance of English language in the present
time as global language. It is clear that the English language has become more
dominant around the world. In some countries it use as the mother tongue and, other
countries learn it as second language in their schools. This is making English
widespread. In addition, many reasons which contributed to rising of English spreading.
For example, use it for communication between people around the world, as well
as, it is language of modern times. On other hand, English is the language of
science and technology.

There is no doubt that, the English is language of communication between the
people with different cultures. It is also the language of computers that help
to communicate with the people around the world through Internet technology and
e-mail. People who know English can deal with the Internet, which is regard
information and communications revolution. Also one of reasons that contributed
to the spread of English that, it is the language of the modern era. Where the
people are use it in various field of life such as, economy, e-commerce,
medicine and aviation. In addition, it is the language which use in the tourism
and travel. This reasons motive the people to learn English.

One of the main reasons why the English is dominant in the present time, use it
in the field of education by universities and institutes and, they use it in
scientific research. It has become an addendum to the mastery of scientific
individual stock. On the other hand, the English is an important requirement in
most government jobs and private. It is quite clear that English has become a
necessity today. We need it in different fields of life.
The English language has become easier to learn more than ever
before with the availability of many sources to help people learn very easily.
Such as the Internet, books and educational institutes which spread around the
world.



v  No one denies the importance of English language in the present
time as global language. It is clear that the English language has become more
dominant around the world. In some countries it use as the mother tongue and,
other countries learn it as second language in their schools.





v 
No one denies
the importance of the English language in the present time as a global
language. It is clear that the English language has become very dominant around
the world. In some countries it is a native language, and in some countries it
is taught in the schools as a second language.





v  English is recognized as the most widely spoken language in the
world today.



v  The importance of English is not just in how many people speak
it but what it is used for. English is the major language of news and
information in the world; it’s the language of business and government, as well
as the international language of maritime communication and air traffic
control.



v  Given much of today’s technology is made in the English speaking
countries, most countries using English as a second language are limited in
various ways to their borders, without the speech and use of better English.



v 
It is evident that in today’s modern world some
countries suffer the English lingual barriers to one degree or another which
create cultural and economic costs.



v 
Culturally, for instance, Japan has had very little
success exporting its literature, movies, history and academic works.



Examples
of practical applications of the English language include:



v  News and information – 75% of all fax messages are in English,
80% of computer data is in English, satellite communication is carried in
English and most newspapers and television are delivered in English.



v  English is required by business, diplomacy and professionals –
important commodities, such as gold, silver and currency, are traded in
English. The United Nations official language is English. Most professionals
publish their papers in English and, even if they are published in another
language, they have English abstracts.



v 
Entertainment – American pop music and movies are
in English. By further example, more than 10,000,000 Japanese visit foreign
countries each year and more than 1/3 of these visit English speaking
countries. Most go as part of a tour and do not speak English during their
visit. There is little contact with the people in the countries they visit
where they generally look at the scenery, stay at hotels and eat in restaurants
chosen by the tour operator. If they could speak English, they could choose all
of these things on their own.



General
places where English is used include:



v  All governments of the world



v  Private and public schools, Universities



v  English Conversation Schools



v  Private language schools



v  In-house company
language schools



v  Radio and television



v  The internet



More specifically, English is offered in 99% of all schools
around the world and is required by many university degrees. In addition, some
4,000,000,000 people study or speak English through compulsory curricula,
English conversation schools, private language schools, and company programs or
through radio and television courses. Listening, pronunciation and speaking are
not taught as they could be with The DD Code.



It is well known that Eglish
nowadays plays an important role in our daily life. The massive means of communication,
the needs that modern life settles, and the high standards in quality required
for leaders companies and the basic needs English itself establishes. Is there
a strong argument which says that English will disappear someday?



Without English you are like a handicapped, you are
like a deaf and dumb, you are like an innocent behind bars, like a violent lion
trapped in a cage, you are just an educated stupid ......among uneducated English
speakers just because you cannot show your talents, expressions and abilities



It is well known that English nowadays plays an important role
in our daily life. The massive means of communication, the needs that modern
life settles, and the high standards in quality required for leaders companies
and the basic needs English itself establishes. is there a strong argument
which says that English will disappear someday?



VARIOUS APPROACHES (FAST AND EASY WAY) TO LEARN ENGLISH



Various Approaches (Fast and Easy Way) to Learn English



Most of the English language learners think that they can learn
English very well through grammar. Undoubtedly,
grammar is an
essential part in learning English as a second language but it can’t solve all
the language problems.
People aspire to become successful speakers of English by
focusing on speaking skills alone. However, this is a wrong idea. Learning any
language is to acquire proficiency in that language. Proficiency means being
able to read, write, speak and listen to the language. Here comes the concept
called language skills. The four basic language skills are Listening,
Speaking, Reading and Writing. Grammar comes under Writing, while Vocabulary
comes under Reading. So, an integrated learning of all these skills is
necessary to acquire proficiency in language. Most of the commercial institutes
try to make money from people as many people are ignorant of these facts. Some helpful
self-learning tips are:



v 
Everyday listen to English news
for an hour (don’t watch programs like movies etc as they focus mainly on the
visuals and we will be able to understand even without understanding the
language).



v 
Read any article in the English
news paper every day.



v 
 Listening and Reading are the two skills which help speaking and
writing.



v  Try to communicate
with people only in English everyday at least for a few minutes. (seek opportunities
to speak in English)



v 
Try to use the language you
listen and read when you speak and write.



Respected Readers, these are
only a few ideas, but there are many and within this short span I am not able
to express all the ideas. Hope these might help people when they try to endeavor
to learn English language.

I saw many professors in English who came from regional medium
(not from
English medium in primary education
). So, don’t lose hope, keep trying and being innovative and
English will be you slave in no time.



During my on-line research and reading on the importance of good
writing I began to ponder my entire knowledge of writing and determined that
good writing has been a sign/symbol of a good education, poise, one’s
mannerisms, convictions and even one’s wealth, in some cases, since the dawn of
civilized living, centuries ago when the main form of communicating was face to
face conversations. Now that we are currently living in a world where 80% to
90% of all of our communications, with the world outside of our home, is done
via some sort of digital medium that requires our written
(typed) transmission, should clearly indicate that we need to increase
the level of importance for good writing to match our increased use of it. It
is important to produce good writing in order to be able to adequately convey
and/or relay one’s thoughts, feelings, ideas, personality, etc., to their readers
and/or target audience. When considering the importance of good writing there
are a few basic elements that I think you should start
with, which I consider to be “staples” in my standard formula for predicting
the importance or the stability of anything in life. They are to simply list
out the pros and cons and then compare them. One of the pros to good writing to
consider would be how good writing can play a vital role in every aspect of our
communities and lives. Some of the vitally important roles writing can play
range from the positive impact a well written resume’ can have on one obtaining
a job
(and vice versa) to the job opportunities and/or new clients that one could gain
access to from one well written Power Point presentation, that one client sees
and then tells another and another about

(and vice versa) to the much needed
progress one could create or stimulate for their child’s public school or the
homeless in their community with a well written letter to a local politician
and the list goes on and on.                                                    
                                  



COMMENTS ONE OF MY FRIENDS ON LEARNING ENGLISH



COMMENTS ONE
OF MY FRIENDS ON LEARNING ENGLISH



English is an
international language which is used officially all around the world. Anybody
who wants to make connections with the world we live in should learn English. I
had English language classes in my secondary and high school years. I also took
some private English learning courses throughout summers in my country,
Pakistan. However, I could not improve my English effectively as all Pakistanis'
students in Pakistan. I fully agree that English will be learned most
efficiently in the boundaries of an English-speaking country not in the home
country because of some cases. Therefore, I decided to go UK, to learn English
better after graduation from my university.

First, English is dealt with all the time while staying in an English-speaking
country. For instance, I have read newspapers and books, listened to the news,
and watched movies, series, and commercials that are all in English since I
came here. While I am doing my shopping, I can see English labels of
vegetables, fruit, and ingredients of all food. If I would like to eat outside
or to go to a coffee shop, the menus will be in English. Even if I just roam
around, I will see shop names, advertising posters and the boards in English.
In addition, everybody with whom I concerned communicates in English. I came
here for the education; therefore I particularly make connections with my
instructors and classmates. I can learn spoken English while I listen to them.
Also, I speak English to make them understand me. I can develop not only my
listening and speaking, but also my writing skills in order to give my homework
in English to the teachers. All those experiences enumerated above will
definitely enhance my English in an intensive way which I have never
encountered in my own country.                                                                        



HOW COMPUTERS HAVE CHANGED OUR WORLD



HOW COMPUTERS HAVE
CHANGED OUR WORLD



There aren't very many people around who can say that their
lives have not been changed by computers. Computers have taken over our society
as we know it. Everywhere you look, computers have greatly improved our lives.
It can be as simple as going through a car wash; a computer processes the information
that we feed it and adjusts the machine accordingly to give us the particular
wash that we paid for. Although technology is a good thing to have, there are a
few drawbacks. Every computer is a little bit different and you cannot expect
everyone in the workplace to become an expert on the computers. We all have our
battles with technology.
                                         



THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS



THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS                                            Computers are commonly
used items in many areas. It is an important thing to people, especially the
people who run organizations, industry, etc. . . Almost anything you know is
run or made by computers. Cars and jets were designed on computers, traffic
signals are run by computers, most medical equipment use computers and space
exploration was started with computers. Most of the jobs today require the use
of computers. These 'mechanical brains' made a huge impact on our society. It
would be hard if we didn't have the computer around. Let's visualize for a
minute. Let's visualize a world without computers. People in the medical field
wouldn't have had found a lot of cures to diseases, since most cures were found
with the help of computers. Movies like Jurassic Park, Toy Story, A Bug's Life
or Godzilla would never have been made without computers because they used
computer graphics and animation in them. Pharmacies would have a hard time
keeping track with what medications to give to patience. Counting votes would
be impossible without computers and most importantly, space exploration
wouldn't be possible without the help of computers. It's a pretty tough life
without computers. Some may not agree and say, "Well, we don't need
computers to live on."                                                                                                              



HOW TO LEARN ENGLISH EXPERIENCE EFFECTIVELY



HOW
TO LEARN ENGLISH EXPERIENCE
EFFECTIVELY

Nowadays, English is the most important language
all over the world. Even in Malaysia, English is the first language that needs
to learn and know about it by everyone. If someone not learn it, and know about
this language, we can say that those people are not followed the new era of the
world. As for me, I have learnt English from my childhood. Well, my family taught
me how to speak and to use English even it is not in appropriate way.

English is not something easy to learn. Of course, if the professional they
will said it is easy, but as for me, it is something quite difficult to learn.
Basically I can speak in English, not so well actually. I have found that if my
friend speak or do some writing in English, I can know whether my friend use
right or wrong grammar but as for myself, for sometimes, I cannot know whether
I use the right grammar or not. English is easier if we learn it hardly and
enjoy what we learn. As for me, I am interest in English, but I am too lazy to
learn the English. That is why my grammar, fluency in English and my language
are not very good. Well, when I have found out that my English become weaker; I
felt that I must do something to repair it. Firstly, I start with listening to
the English song. Why I do like that? This because, when I heard the English
song, I can look the use of some word in it. And from that, I can learn the
English easier.

Second, I make the dictionary as my first revision. If there any words that I’m
not understand I will use the Oxford’s dictionary. Of course the English-Malay
dictionary first, then I will revise the English-English dictionary. Thirdly, I
love to ask my friend about the meaning of some words and talk with my friends
in English for some time. Well, my friends love to ask me the meaning of some
words, from that I can improve my own memory of some words. For sometimes I
think that my English are weaker than them, but why they always ask me about
the English.



Do
you want to know how to learn English effectively? If so, you are not alone. In
fact, there are many people out there today who are working to learn English as
a second language. No matter what the reason is that you are learning English,
you want to make sure that you can learn it quickly and effectively as well.
Whether you are learning English in a class, on your own, or with language
teaching software, there are certain things that you can do to make sure that
you learn the language effectively. So, here are a few tips to keep in mind
that will help you on your journey towards learning the English language.



v 
Make Sure You
WANT to learn one of the first tips that can help you out if you want to know
how to learn English effectively is to make sure that you really want to learn
this language. If you really don’t want to learn, there is no book, no class,
and no tips that are going to make it simpler for you. Make sure that you ask
yourself whether you really want to learn English. If not, then it’s not for
you. However, a real desire to learn the language can go a long way.



v  Figure out What
Motivates You If you want to learn English effectively, you need to figure out
what your motivation is. Why do you want to learn English so badly? Do you want
to improve your current learning, get a better job, attend university, or enjoy
your life in an English speaking country? No matter the reason you are motivated
to learn this language, you need to understand what motivates you so you can
use it as encouragement as you learn the language.



v 
Decide on
Some Goals it is very important that you have goals in mind if you want to know
how to learn English effectively. Setting goals will help you to know where you
want to be and it will you to actually see your progress as you learn the
language as well. Decide what your goals are, whether you want to improve your
vocabulary, pronunciation, etc.



v 
English is an
international language which is used officially all around the world. Anybody
who wants to make connections with the world we live in should learn English. I
had English language classes in my secondary and high school years. I also took
some private English learning courses throughout summers in my country, Turkey.
However, I could not improve my English effectively as all Turkish students in
Turkey. I fully agree that English will be learned most efficiently in the
boundaries of an English-speaking country not in the home country because of
some cases. Therefore, I came here, USA, to learn English better after
graduation from my university.



v  First, English is dealt with all the time while staying in an
English-speaking country. For instance, I have read newspapers and books,
listened to the news, and watched movies, series, and commercials that are all
in English since I came here. On the other hand, there is Turkish or translated
of them in my country, so nothing forces. Me to look
for media in English. I engage in it in daily life in the USA, as well. While I
am doing my shopping, I can see English labels of vegetables, fruit, and
ingredients of all food. If I would like to eat outside or to go to a coffee
shop, the menus will be in English. Even if I just roam around, I will see shop
names, advertising posters and the boards in English. In addition, everybody
with whom I concerned communicates in English. I came here for the education;
therefore I particularly make connections with my instructors and classmates. I
can learn spoken English while I listen to them. Also, I speak English to make
them understand me. I can develop not only my listening and speaking, but also
my writing skills in order to give my homework in English to the teachers. All
those experiences enumerated above will definitely enhance my English in an
intensive way which I have never encountered in my own country.





Where do I start? Why do you want to learn English?

Before you begin (or go back to) studying English, ask yourself one question.
Why do I want to study English? Is it because you want to, or because someone
else wants you to? Like every decision in life, studying English must be
something you want to do.



Set goals, If you know
why you want to study, setting goals is easy. For example, maybe you want to
travel to an English-speaking country. Great. Your goal might be to learn
"Survival English". Perhaps you already know many useful phrases, but
you want to improve your listening skills and pronunciation. Whatever your
goals are, write them down. Make an agenda how long do you need to study to
achieve your goals? This answer is different for every student. The important
thing is to be realistic. If you work 60 hours per week, don't plan on spending
another 40 hours a week studying English. Start off slow, but study regularly.
Use material that is challenging, but not too difficult. Find out what works
for you. After you have studied for a few weeks, adjust your study schedule
accordingly. Do you study best at night or on the bus on your way to work? Do
you like to study alone in a quiet place, or with friends and background music?
Click here for a sample 4 week agenda. Make a commitment, Learning English requires
a lot of motivation. Nobody is going to take your attendance when you aren't in
class. If you are sure you are ready to begin studying, make a commitment.
Click here to sign a contract with yourself. Have fun learning English? The
things we do best in life are the things we enjoy doing. If you aren't having
fun learning English, you're not studying the right way! You can be a serious
student who has fun at the same time. Make up your own rewards program to give
yourself incentives to stay on task.



Everyone has had problems using
English language as effectively as it should be used.  Many, if not most, of our problems with
English develop when we forget that there are two closely related but
essentially different kinds of English - spoken English and written English. To
use the language effectively, we have to be able to switch from one of its
forms to the other with ease. If these two forms of English were identical, we
could simply apply one set of rules to both, and many of our problems would
disappear. But, unfortunately, spoken English and written English is not the same
thing. And you simply can't ignore their differences. When we speak, we don¡¦t
have to worry about spelling, punctuation and capitalization, or neatness and
legibility. But when we write, these things become very important. When we
speak, we can correct ourselves immediately if our listener doesn't understand.
But when we write, our writing must stand alone and explain itself without us.
When we speak, our words vanish in the air. But when we write, they remain for
everyone to see. Small wonder that speaking seems so easy and natural; writing,
so difficult and forced. Small wonder, too, that others are more critical of
the way you write than of the way you speak. Because people from different
parts of the country and different backgrounds speak English differently it¡¦s
very difficult, if not impossible, to establish hard-and-fast rules for a
standard spoken English. But while people may expect varieties of spoken
English to ¡§sound¡¨ different, they expect written English to ¡§look¡¨ the
same. This is why fairly rigid and universal standards for written English have
been established and why these standards are taught in schools. In fact the
sort of ¡§good¡¨ English an educated person is expected to use is called
Standard English ¡V or, more accurately,   Standard Written English.



HOW TO ESTABLISH GOALS FOR STUDENTS



How to establish
goals for students?



Develop group learning goals for
the entire class, and allow individuals to set some personal goals as well.
Simplify the curriculum and make it relevant to learners' goals. Use
skill-specific exercises and homework assignments to address one learning point
at a time. Track the students' progress, motivating them by pointing out
positive achievements as well as areas for improvement.



v Use visual aids in lessons. Working solely out of a textbook can
be tedious and discouraging for students, so mix in some more lively teaching
tactics. Use slides, chalkboard drawings, videos, flash cards or other items to
help learners visualize concepts. Consider other approaches such as labeling
items in the classroom to further cement vocabulary comprehension.



v Foster interaction and camaraderie in the classroom by
conducting games and exercises that require communication between students.
Orchestrate group speaking and listening drills, play a game of charades or
have learners participate in a vocabulary contest using such activities as
Pictionary or flash card roulette. Cooperation between students in drills and
friendly competitions will create a more positive learning environment in which
individuals work together to improve their English.



v
Use small rewards as positive
reinforcement for learning advancements and good behavior. Give out little
treats to students who earn high scores on their homework and tests, or provide
a modest prize for the winners of group games. Let students watch a popular
movie or TV show in English at the end of productive lessons. Organize a field
trip at the end of a semester for students who attend and participate regularly
in class.



v Start with the basics and work up gradually. Use consistent
vocabulary when giving instructions, placing emphasis on high-frequency words
so as not to confuse new learners.                                                                                     



v
Do not be
overly critical. Learning English is very difficult for non-native speakers,
and they will make many mistakes. The best form of motivation is encouragement.
Praise and provide constructive criticism to bolster the students' self-esteem
and their understanding of topics.



Teaching English to non-native speakers presents a significant
challenge. Language and cultural barriers make it especially difficult for
beginning students grappling with English for the first time. According to
TEFL.net, the teacher's skills in motivating learners play a pivotal role in
student achievement. Lack of motivation leads to lack of focus and effort, and
ultimately lack of success. Instructors must figure out effective techniques to
motivate foreign students if these learners are to make improvements in their
English language capabilities.





HOW TO TEACH ENGLISH ONLINE FROM HOME



How to Teach English Online From Home?



Teaching English online involves using the computer to teach a
student located anywhere in the world. Online English lessons are in demand
since many people think of English as a universal language. Helping someone to
learn English is one of teaching's greatest rewards. Those seeking to learn
English are highly motivated, keenly interested in learning about our culture
and are most appreciative of those who help them meet their language goals.







         
 Instructions



        Setting up



v
Download
Skype for free on your computer. Skype is a program that allows you to make
international calls free of charge and gives you and your student a "live
on-screen" picture of each other. This is a distinct advantage because the
student often needs to see how the mouth and tongue move in order to make
certain English sounds. Face-to-face conversations are also important, as they
often facilitate meaning more easily. When your student is perplexed, you can
see that and quickly resolve the problem.











v
Decide if you
want to work for a language company. Online language teaching is very
competitive, so earnings may start low but will increase over time. There are
advantages to working for a company. Teaching materials are chosen and
purchased for your use, providing you with a framework in which to work. There
are no legality issues with the materials and you save a lot of time in
preparation. In addition, the company will advertise on the web with its own
website, allowing you to focus on what you do best---teach. Lastly, tracking
billing and payments, keeping make-up lessons straight, and writing up
contracts---all record keeping administrative tasks---are done for you.





Think about how well you can split your focus and time. If you comfortable
    being both teacher and company
administrator, then set up up your website and link to language employment
sites. Write up very specific agreements for clients, spelling out rates,
make-up policy and the length of the course. Keep in mind that materials used
must be copyright legal.



v
Research
professional materials for yourself. Whether you teach for a language company
or decide to teach for yourself, you will need to buy excellent resource
materials geared toward online English teaching. There are several books out
that offer superb language games, writing exercises and activities designed for
many different learning styles. Engaging your students in numerous ways of
learning benefits both you as a teacher and your students as learners.



MODELS AND PROJECTS IN ENGLISH SENIOR CLASSES



Advertising Projects for English Classes



An advertising
project is a good way to have English class students work together as a team
and use skills learned in class. To motivate students, teachers can ask teams
to invent a product and then advertise it. With a little research and guidance
from the teacher, students can learn how to write a press release, create a
print advertisement, put together a brochure and write a blog.



Creating a
Print Advertisement



Students can create a print
advertisement. They should think of what makes their product stand out from the
competition, and write an advertisement that informs consumers of that feature
or benefit. Students can work in a team to create an eye-catching headline and
brief but interesting and informative copy. To prepare for the assignment,
students can bring in print advertisements and explain why they think they are
effective. They can then use those advertising techniques in the print ad they
create. After writing the headline and copy, students can then select graphic
elements like logos, font styles, color, illustrations and photos.





Putting Together a Brochure



The student teams
can create a mock-up of a brochure to advertise their product. Templates are
available online from a variety of sources. A letter-sized paper of 8.5 by 11
inches folded in thirds will produce a six-page tri-fold brochure. The first
page generally has the name of the company, a tag line, the company logo and a
graphic like a photo or illustration. The inside pages can contain information
about the company and bullet point information about their products. The back
pages can contain an order form, contact information and directions.



Writing a Press
Release



Writing press releases are good practice for English
students. Press releases can be like free advertising for a company. When
something newsworthy happens in a firm, the company generally sends out a press
release. This can happen when they introduce a new product or service, take on
a new employee or open up a new store. The writing in a press release has to be
succinct and focused. Instruct students to write in a "reverse
pyramid" style with the important information first and less important
information at the end. This style makes it easy for a newspaper to cut down
the article if there is not enough space to print the whole thing. English
students should report on who, what, when, where, why and/or how when they
write the release.




Writing a Blog



These
days blogs on company websites serve as an effective way to advertise.
Companies establish themselves as experts in their industry by putting up a
blog on various aspects of the business. Students can study the blog format and
write a blog to advertise and promote their product.











Models and Projects in English Senior Classes



English is a versatile subject that combines reading with
writing and critical thinking. This being the case, you can offer your senior
students many opportunities for completing projects in English throughout their
final year of study in the public school system.



Globe Theatre Model



The
Globe Theatre is William Shakespeare's historical theatre. It is the perfect
project for seniors because it gives life to all of the Shakespearean plays
that they have become accustomed to. It also requires them to do a fair amount
of research based on what the Globe Theatre was thought to look like and
possible blueprints that could have made it up. The Globe Theatre is a
historical building that was lost to record when it burned down hundreds of
years ago, so each model is bound to be different.



Book Presentation



Assign
each student in the classroom a certain book, or allow the student pick a book.
That student must complete a project based on that book and present it to the
class. This can be something like designing the "Lord of the Flies"
island and explaining it, or developing a flow chart of the hierarchy found in
"Animal Farm." Have the students run their project ideas by you so
you can regulate what is being done.





Have a group of
students in the class pick a certain scene from the play or book that you have
been studying, and have them perform it in front of the class. This helps the
students exercise their creative tendencies while showing their classmates the
literature from a more entertaining standpoint. Have each group do a different
scene so that students do not get bored with the same scene over and over
again.



Book Timeline



Give the students a book to read
that takes place over a particularly long period of time, such as
"Lolita" or "The Sound and the Fury." Then, have each
student draft a timeline of the events that take place in that book and present
them to the class. To keep things interesting, have each student do a different
book, and have them include a brief summary of the book's plot during their
presentation as well.









English Class Projects



Teaching an English class can be a rewarding, but challenging,
experience. English is a different medium than science or mathematics classes
in that the activities designed to teach the topic can be at polar opposites.
In a science or a math course, you can assign problems to the students to
solve. In English, beyond teaching the rules of grammar, class projects are
harder to design. Despite the challenge, project ideas are available.



Grammar Games



Grammar is one of the few areas in English where you
can assign problems for students to dissect and solve. Problems, however, can
get boring and students will lose interest if all you do is drill them on the
rules and how they are applied. Think about ways to make learning grammar a fun
and exciting experience. Split the classroom into teams and organize a few
grammar games. The game can be as simple as matching opposite words, or as
complex as having two teams write sentences containing multiple sentence parts
and having the other team try to dissect the sentence's grammatical components.
Whichever game you choose, tailor the game for your specific grade level and
for the relative experience of the classroom; complex games are not well suited
for lower grades, and games that are too easy will not keep the interest of the
higher level students.





To keep the games interesting, keep
score and keep statistics over the course of your semester. Offer prize
incentives for the winning teams. The prizes can be tiny pieces of candy or, if
you keep track of the progress over the course of a semester, a semester-ending
pizza party for the winner. The incentives will keep the students engaged and
encourage them to learn the materials.



English
Papers



English
papers are the meat-and-potatoes of traditional English classes. Most of your
students will probably groan if you simply assign a paper. Instead, spend some
time and explain the benefits of writing a paper. For instance, many students
will need to write well to gain admittance into good colleges. Furthermore,
just as driving a car or riding a bicycle improves a person's ability in those
areas, writing and processing the English language helps students gain a better
mastery over the subject.









When thinking about a paper, consider several ideas to suit the
strengths of your diverse classroom. Perhaps assign one paper based in
nonfiction; it could be a research paper or simply an autobiography. Also
assign a fiction paper; this will pique the interests of your more
creative-minded students. When assigning a paper, give the students clear
guidelines; explain to them exactly what you expect of them. Grade based on how
well the students utilized the grammar rules and based on the overall quality
of their papers.





PROJECT TOPICS FOR AN ENGLISH UNDERGRADUATE



Project Topics for an English Undergraduate



You have options when choosing a project for your English undergraduate
career. No matter what topic you ultimately choose, your project will be based
mostly on research. Choose a topic you are passionate about and will enjoy
spending hours researching and learning about. A passion for your topic will
show in your final paper and may earn you a higher grade.



COMPARE MIDDLE ENGLISH TO MODERN ENGLISH



Compare Middle English to Modern English



A
lot of differences exist between modern English and Middle English. Do not
state the obvious, but instead delve into the interesting. For example, double
negatives were perfectly acceptable in Middle English whereas they are
inappropriate in modern English. Look for other examples of how the English language
has changed. You could compare poetry written in Middle English to poetry
written in modern English. Take one prominent poem written in Middle English
and one prominent poem written in modern English, and look at the poetic
devices used in each.



Edit Historical Works



If
your university has a historical research center, you could try taking on the
task of editing historical works. Often universities will have editing
internships for which you will learn the ropes of editing historical documents
and converting them to files that can be viewed by people on the Internet. If
your school does not offer an editing internship, ask your advisor if
conducting an independent study on works from the historical research center
would be possible.



Creative
Writing Project



If
your passion is for creative writing, there is likely no better project than a
creative writing project. If you are interested in poetry, write a series of
poems for your portfolio. If you love short stories, you can work on writing a
series of short stories, or you could even focus on perfecting just one story.
Your imagination is the limit for what you can do with a creative writing
project. A mentor who can offer constructive criticism on your creative writing
project will help.



Cultural
Issues in a Classic Novel



A
common approach to an English undergraduate novel is to research and expand on
issues in a classic novel. Cultural issues abound in the classics. Researching
cultural issues in a novel will open a new world to you as you explore the
microcosm of a world created by the author. Often a novel reflects the times
the author lives in. For example, look at a novel like Jane Eyre and research
the restrictions placed on women during the Victorian Era and how that
manifests in the novel. Pick your favorite novel, and explore the issues within
it.





ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES



English Language Communication Techniques



The Technical Communications Department at the University of
Minnesota has developed a class to explore the basics behind English
communication. There are three main aspects of English communication, according
to this class, which is Technical English. They are spoken English, written
English, and signs and symbols in English. Rosita D. Albert, who has a Ph.D. in
English and is dean of the Technical Communications Department at the University
of Minnesota, explains these aspects more clearly.



Spoken
Communication



Understand spoken
communication to be able to understand the English language. Spoken English is
a series of sounds that are words, strung together in sentences. Each sentence
has a subject and a verb, along with other types of modifiers and descriptions.
In order to communicate in English, a person must be able to hear sentences and
decipher the information presented in them. He also must be able to say
sentences back to someone else, and transmit information about subjects through
those sentences.



Understanding
does exist through spoken communication without the use of sentences, in some
instances in English. These include one-word phrases that many people learn and
understand before they have a concrete grasp on the English language. Help,
stop, no, yes, come and other words are easily understood and often are used
before the mastery of the English language.





Written
Communication



Understand
English communication by understanding written English. English is written in
printing and in typing, and it is most commonly written in the same sentences
in which it is spoken. Written English, however, also can be understood in
snippets and phrases. Many second language learners first learn how to read
single words and phrases to go about their business. Understanding the printed
word "grocery" can allow them to visit a store, pick out food and buy
the food, even without knowing any other words in English. Understanding
"doctor" can allow a person to get medical attention, even if she
cannot read or speak any other English.



Signs and
Symbols in the English Language



Understand
signs and symbols in the English language in order to fully communicate in
English. Signs such as stop signs, traffic lights, pharmacist symbols, ER or
medical symbols and post office symbols can allow communication even if nothing
in English is understood other than the symbol. Many businesses and social
programs rely on signs and symbols in order to communicate with non-English
speakers.



THE MOST POPULAR ENGLISH VOCABULARY LEARNING FEATURES



The Most Popular English Vocabulary Learning Features



Learning English can be difficult, especially for adults that
are learning it as a second language. Although becoming fluent in the English
vocabulary may take some time, there are popular features used to enhance and
quicken the process including memory and practice techniques. Which features
work best depend on the learner and how well she implements the various
learning techniques into everyday communications.





Memory



One
of the most important features of learning English vocabulary is memorization.
Retaining learned words requires remembering them and there are several
techniques to aid with this. Writing down words on flash cards with correct
pronunciation and reciting the words repeatedly is one way to improve the
retention and recognition of particular words over time. Also, watching a slide
show that shows each word with a corresponding picture is another way to boost
memorization.



   Association



Associating
a vocabulary word with its definition is another popular English learning
feature. Knowing a word's meaning may help a learner remember words that are
more difficult and recognize those word by associating the meaning with the
collection of letters. One way to improve word and definition association is to
recite the word aloud and have someone else provide a definition for the word
by using it in a sentence. Or, when a word is unfamiliar, find its meaning in a
dictionary and write it down. This type of activity provides the learner with
an instant example of how the word is properly used in context.



Practice



It is hard to retain learned
words if they are not used often. Practicing using words in sentences with
another person who is fluent in English can help increase understanding in
regard to how words are used in different ways. Practicing can be a simple,
informal interaction with a fluent English speaker or a scheduled time where
the learner sits down with a helper, and engages in conversation with the main
purpose of helping the learner become more fluent.



Quizzes



Taking quizzes is a learning
feature that improves memory and association of, as well as fluidity in,
English vocabulary words. Most books and programs for English learning provide
written tests for learners to take. Also, using flash cards as a self-quizzing
method is possible by writing down a word on the front of the card and its
meaning on the back. Practice reading the word and guessing its meaning before
turning the card over to see the answer. Or, have someone hold up each card
until the word is pronounced correctly and the meaning is accurately stated.
These tests are used to evaluate progress and to determine what words need more
practice.









CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO LEARN DEFINITIONS OF WORDS



Classroom Activities to Learn Definitions of Words



Teaching
vocabulary is essential, but it can easily be boring. Liven up the classroom by
incorporating games and activities into lessons and getting children involved.
By giving life to vocabulary words, retention and overall understanding     are
increased, turning words on a page into reality.   



Vocabulary
Jeopardy                                         



Turn definitions into a
competition. Arrange the class into teams; if you have a small class, students
can play individually. Put multiple categories on a bulletin board in a grid
formation. Use categories such as nouns, verbs and adjectives on the board for
students to choose from. If the class is more mature, use advanced categories
like five-letter words, positive prefixes, homonyms, antonyms and action verbs.
List four or five topics beneath the chosen categories and put a card face down
with a question in reference to the topic. Assign a point value to the
question, and let students pick a category and question. If the team correctly
answers the question, it gets the points and continues to play; if it answers
incorrectly, the opposing team gets an opportunity to answer.



Last Man Standing



Have all students stand and face
the front of the classroom. If a child is unable to stand, have him raise his
hand to represent his participation. Walk around the classroom and select a
student. Ask her a question about a vocabulary word. Say the word and ask for
its definition, form an incomplete sentence and ask for the missing word or
create a situation that fits the meaning of the word. If she answers correctly,
she remains standing. If she answers incorrectly, she must sit. The winner is
the last person standing in the room.



Act Out



Group students into two teams.
Give one student a note card with a word and its definition written out. Have
the student mime the word to the class. Give his team three opportunities to
guess the word; this prevents students from shouting out every vocabulary word
available. If the team doesn't get it right, let the opposite team try to
answer. Award points to the winning team. Select the next student to mime, or
let the student who answered correctly act out the next word.



1.   
 Bing       



Select 10 vocabulary
words and write them on the chalkboard. Pass out sheets with the definitions of
each word placed in a grid pattern. Draw pieces of paper from a cup and call
out the word chosen. Have students write the corresponding word by the
definition on their sheets. If a student makes a straight line in any way, have
her yell "Bingo!" Let the student say the words used to make a line.
If correct, she wins. If incorrect, the game continues until someone makes a
complete line.



INTERACTIVE LEARNING DEFINITION



Interactive Learning Definition



Interactive learning occurs when
a student puts together knowledge and skills by connecting with information and
experiences provided by the teacher. The student is engaged both intellectually
and emotionally in interactive learning. Feedback, reflection and dialogue are
integral components of    interactive
learning.



Type                                                                     



Interactive learning
incorporates three primary interaction types. The first is learner-content, in
which the student interacts with the facts, readings and information. In the
second style, learner-instructor, the student interacts primarily with the
teacher. In the third format, called learner-learner, students collaborate with
one another to construct knowledge.











Features                                                    



Interactive learning features
feedback and materials. The student easily gives and receives with the teacher
and other students, and projects and work that requires collaboration are
featured. Teachers using interactive learning make sure that the student's
perspective and knowledge change and that he is able to apply the new knowledge
acquired.



Benefits



The interactive environment makes use of varied learning
styles, so that students who typically prefer to read and listen instead do
something with the information, collaborate with others or create something
new. Because students are engaged with the materials rather than simply
memorizing the information, the learning is deeper and more lasting. More
engagement means more time is spent on the learning task. Students cannot
daydream or disengage in an interactive environment



 Potential



As interactive learning becomes
more user-based, the potential is nearly limitless. The learning matches the
student rather than the student needing to accommodate the learning preferences
of the instructor. Students use the learning style that is most effective for
them. For example, technology-based interactive learning is self-paced, so
students can move quickly through review material and focus on learning new
information.



Considerations



Developers of technology-based
learning environments are using research to create varied interactive learning
methods. Technology allows for detailed models, simulations and social
networks, and online courses are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
The student does not have to be somewhere at a specific time, and geography is
no longer a barrier.









INTERACTIVE LEARNING FOR KIDS



Interactive Learning for Kids



Many children learn in different
ways, so it is always important to incorporate new and interesting learning
techniques into your everyday classroom teaching. Interactive learning is
something that has become prominent in the last few years due to the increases
in technology that have made interactive learning more popular. Because of the
way that interactive learning works, students are able to get more involved and
therefore retain more knowledge.



History



In classrooms of the 1950s and
1960s, most learning was done by rote. A teacher would recite facts and
lessons, and students would be expected to simply remember them. However, as
technologies like computers, televisions, and video programs began to be
available in the 70s, 80s, and 90s, learning itself became more interactive.
The more teachers began to see the benefits of having students take more of a
role in their own learning; the more interactive learning began to be used in
classrooms.



Types                                                  



Interactive learning is any type
of learning that students have a hand in. It is anything other than passively
listening to a teacher. Therefore, interactive learning includes looking up
facts on the Internet, creating videos to share with the rest of the class on a
particular topic, and creating presentations to share with their peers using
research that they have done on their own. Interactive learning may also
include hands-on learning, such as going to museums and zoos, visiting other
classrooms and doing other hands-on things.



Benefits                                                                    



Interactive learning, no matter
what type, has many benefits for students. It helps students take ownership of
their learning, and once they feel responsible for learning, they will learn
more. Interactive learning benefits students because they pay more attention during
the lesson, and are able to pick up more information from the class.
Interactive learning is also considered to be more fun by many students, and
lessons that are more fun are usually more successful.



   Considerations



A good balance of interactive
learning and regular instruction usually works best for the majority of
students, so you should try to plan your learning methods around this idea. Be
sure that you are doing interactive learning for the sake of learning and not
just to have fun with new technology.



Warning



Too much interactive learning
might actually be a detriment to some students. Students who have ADD or other
disorders might do better in a setting where they are simply told the
information that they need to know. Therefore, evaluate your classroom
carefully and develop learning strategies that benefit everyone.







TECHNIQUES USED TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM





Techniques Used to Motivate Students
in the Classroom



If you are a teacher, it can be
difficult working with students who don't seem interested in the material you
are presenting. Unmotivated students may not want to do the work they are
assigned, and are likely to receive lower scores on homework and tests. This
may be especially bothersome to you if you enjoy the subject you are teaching,
but students do not. No matter the situation, employing certain techniques in
the classroom will have a motivating effect on your students.



Make Material Relevant



Students
may not be motivated if they can't see how the material relates to them and
their lives. For instance, many students find subjects such as history or math
boring, as well as not useful to their everyday lives. Find ways to relate your
course material to student's lives and hobbies, as well as current trends that
the students are familiar with. Use teaching methods that incorporate
technology that students already enjoy using. You can post a lecture as an
online video, for example, or make the lecture available to download as an MP3
file, which students can listen to at any time.



      Clear Goals



Goals
are major motivating factors in the classroom. Without clear goals, students
aren't sure what they are supposed to be doing, and naturally feel bored and
unchallenged. Clear, challenging goals let students know what you expect from
them. Don't make goals too challenging, though, as this is more likely to
frustrate students than motivate them. Encourage students to set some goals for
themselves, as well. Help students set goals that make sense for them. For
example, students usually benefit from setting a goal of raising their homework
scores.



      Empower Students



Make your classroom a
semi-democracy by allowing students to have options, which makes them feel
empowered. You can let students vote to decide where they will go on the next field
trip, for example. Allow students to choose, from two or three topics, which
topic interests them the most, then explore that topic in further detail. This
motivates students because they have a say in what they are taught. Students
who are interested in the lesson plan are much more likely to experience
success.



Don't Focus on
Grades



Although grades can
be a good indicator of how students are doing in the class, avoid grading every
homework assignment that you give to students. Making homework grades a large
portion of a student's final grade can backfire. Some students may cheat to get
the grade they want, or they may simply give up and choose not to turn in
assignments at all. If you assign homework, put less emphasis on grading it,
and use it instead as a learning tool. Tell students to do the problems, then
come to you with any they don't understand. Emphasize that they are much more
likely to succeed on exams if they complete the homework.





HOW TO MOTIVATE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS



How to Motivate High School Students



Motivating students is one the most difficult parts of being a
high school educator, and the same goes for parents as well. This is especially
true for students who are struggling and who have been unmotivated for years.
These students begin to exemplify learned helplessness. This is where students
consider themselves to be failures and don't see any reason to try and better
themselves. They feel they are lost causes and give up on the thought of
achievement. Yet there are ways parents and educators can make a difference.



Instructions



v
Do not accuse
any student of being lazy. Realize that many students go through the learned
helplessness phase and need support. Provide that support for the student as a
parent by staying in contact with the school and the child's teachers. Do not
wait until grades come out to sit down and connect. Talk on a daily basis and
be more helpful than critical when it comes to the child's school work.











v
Use various
motivational factors to reach all of your students as a teacher. Praise
students who are more concerned about recognition or status for effort and
improvement. Offer choices to students more driven by autonomy. Use projects to
motivate the inquisitive student. Build meaningful relationships with students
who are more people-oriented. Give informal, unannounced rewards to students
who are motivated by affiliation. Give more power-driven students the
opportunities to show their talents.



v Use intrinsic motivation for students who are more interested in
their work. Give these students the opportunity to delve more into their work
because they are more interested in the subject and more apt to desire to
master it. Use extrinsic motivation for students who are more interested in
making good grades. Give these students the opportunity to complete multiple
assignments because they are more interested in the final results of their
efforts.



v
Make
academics relate to real life. Use current events, pop culture and home life
examples when teaching high school students. Find role models such as people
from pop culture and peers to influence the academics and behavior of the
students. Use peers who were once unmotivated students themselves and overcame
barriers to become successful students. Invite such role models to be guest
speakers for the class.









v
Balance the
work that is being taught in the classroom. Make sure that the work is not too
easy to ensure students are challenged. Do not make the work too difficult so
you don't discourage the students. Use scaffolding-type teaching, where the
difficulty of the work gradually increases. Assign work that is slightly above
the student's understanding to promote academic growth.







HOW TO INTRODUCE WRITING TO HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH DISABILITI



How to Introduce Writing to High School Students with Disabilities



High school educators often struggle with teaching writing to
students with disabilities. Developing strategies to approach the writing
process with high school students with disabilities aids teachers in
introducing the concepts involved with writing, as well as monitoring progress
and guiding students toward favorable learning outcomes. Teachers can include
Individual Education Plans (IEPs), student learning styles and multiple
intelligences to provide facilitation, feedback and organizational guidance
within their writing lesson plans.



Instructions



v Assess individual needs. Refer to students' IEPs for guidelines
for required accommodations and modifications, such as extra time for
assignments. Some students may require written outlines of lectures or special
equipment to provide them adequate access to course materials and activities.



v Assess learning styles. Have students take a learning style
inventory to determine whether they are auditory, kinesthetic or visual
learners. According to The University of Arizona's "Tutor Materials",
this information will help to identify whether to use charts or graphs,
lectures and audio recordings or "hands-on" learning experiences.











v
Provide
graphic organizers. Learning disabled (LD) high school students can benefit
from the guidance of worksheets that ask questions about audience, content and
purpose. Questions such as "What do I know about the topic?";
"For whom am I writing?"; "How can I group my information?"
and "What do I want my reader to know?" help direct students who may
have trouble focusing.



v Teach content-specific structure. Writing is organized
differently according to purpose. Expository and narrative writing differ in
focus. Explain, illustrate or model the specific structure for the type of
writing being introduced, whether it is narrative, expository, persuasive or
descriptive.



v Address multiple intelligences. A concept introduced by Howard
Gardner, multiple intelligences include logical-mathematical, musical,
linguistic, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, existential and spatial.
High school students will exhibit these intelligences in different proportions
according to individual tendencies and learning preferences. Lesson plans can
be constructed or modified to appeal to one or more of these types.



v Provide frequent, meaningful feedback. Constructive feedback
encourages high school students and helps to keep them on track. Offer
guidance, suggestions and comments about the student's work throughout all
steps of the writing process: pre-writing, organizing, drafting, revising,
editing and publishing.



v Employ technological tools. According to LD Online, students
with learning disabilities perform better when technology is part of the

instructional process. The use of computers in writing activities helps to
motivate LD students.



WRITING TOOLS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION



Writing Tools for Special Education



Students in special education may have disabilities that can
make writing a challenging task. Special education teachers can use various
writing tools in their classrooms to enable their students to produce better
written work. Writing tools can help with the formation of ideas and the
mechanics of writing. They can also help disabled children improve their
spelling and grammar.





Graphic Organizers



Graphic organizers
can make writing easier in education. These tools help special education
students visualize their topics instead of relying on language processes.
Graphic organizers can help special education students who get bored easily
gain interest. They can also help students who have trouble organizing or
comprehending writing topics. Graphic organizers can help students understand
relationships, classify information, compare and contrast topics, form a
sequence and develop concepts by using storyboards, KWL charts, Venn diagrams,
word webs, concept mapping and charts.



Pencil
Grips



Some disabled
students need help to place their fingers on their pencils correctly when they
write. Pencil grips help students in special education learn the proper ways to
hold a pencil. This tool allows them to concentrate on their writing instead of
worrying about where they should grip the pencil. Pencil grips make holding a
pencil feel natural to these children. Penmanship can be significantly improved
when students use these tools.



Physical and Sensory
Writing Tools



Some disabled
students have physical or sensory problems that can make writing a difficult
task. There are various types of software available that can help special
education students engage in writing tasks. These writing tools include a large
keyboard and speech recognition software, which help students with coordination
problems and programs that read text back to children who have cannot seeing.
The types of tools used by special education teachers will depend on the
disabilities of her students.





v Grammar and offer corrections can help students in special
education learn to write better. Students can become more confident as they
learn to choose correct word choices and use proper punctuation. Students with
language difficulties will be able to produce better written work by using
writing tools.













PROBLEMS THAT STUDENTS ENCOUNTER WITH ESSAY WRITING



Problems That Students Encounter With Essay Writing





An essay is
either well-written or it is not. Sounds simple, but the balancing act of
forming a cohesive essay is as difficult as walking a tight rope. What
constitutes a well-written essay is descriptions of the writer's observations,
his focus and his tenacity. All too often, students rush into an essay armed
with nothing but a word processor expecting to hammer out a unified essay hours
before it's due. Without going through the proper channels of writing an essay,
students will find themselves with a variety of problems to deal with.



Researching



Before
tackling a writing assignment of any kind, the writer must pay due diligence.
This means that regardless of the writer's knowledge of the subject, she must
still employ research to use within the essay. Writing without researching is
much harder and consequently puts the writer's credibility at stake.



Writing the
Thesis





The
thesis is the focus of the entire essay, and it must clearly state the
intentions of the essay as well as narrow the topic to something workable
within the context of the essay. Without a clear direction or definition to
base the thesis on, the writer is uncommitted and sacrifices the unity of the
essay. Thesis statements broad in scope not only confuse the audience by
offering too many generalizations of the topic but also confuse the writer. The
essay then lacks focus and provides the audience with nothing to take away from
the overall essay.









Structuring



The
structure of the essay stems directly from the research and thesis. The
research provides the content, the thesis focuses that context and the
structure gives the subject matter unity and comprehension. The structure
involves discussing the essay in the way your thesis presents the content and
in a logical manner that builds on the previous content. Often, essays with
well-focused theses become incoherent gibberish because the structure was
confusing.



Grammar



Nothing
kills a well-defined essay faster than bad grammar. No matter how well
researched the essay is, how focused the thesis is or how balanced the
structure is, essays rife with spelling mistakes and grammar faux pas quickly
lose the audience's trust. Many of these problems stem from an overuse of
passive verb forms ("to be") and structures ("there is").
Another major problem is using negative statements, such as "there is no
peace." The positive form would be "there is war." Positive
statements are easily comprehended by readers, but negative statements work
sparingly to produce a certain effect intended by the writer.



PROBLEMS THAT Ph.D STUDENTS HAVE WITH WRITING



Problems That Ph.D. Students Have With Writing





Writing as a
Ph.D. student comes with a considerable amount of pressure, particularly when
working on a dissertation. You are essentially working on the project that can
make or break your academic career thus far. The amount of research, writing
and time that goes in to Ph.D.-level writing is staggering. However intelligent
they may be, PhD. students may struggle to stay focused and positive during the
experience. Following school guidelines and advice from peers and advisers may
be what saves your thesis and your sanity.



Research



Conducting
the research necessary to formulate and back up a thesis proposal takes a
significant amount of time. It can take years for some students. The breadth
and depth of your research must be comprehensive enough to give you a deep,
thorough understanding of your topic, which may be complex and nuanced. Ph.D.
students may find themselves surprised and intimidated by the amount of
research they must conduct, but to write an effective paper, this legwork is
unavoidable.



Starting to Write



Once
you have amassed the information you need to get started, you may find your
momentum coming to a screeching halt. With so much information, knowing where
to start can be difficult. Ph.D. students may have difficulty in these early
stages because they require careful analysis of their research. Structuring and
outlining their findings may involve making a long, complex argument.



Motivation
and Goals





Writing
a dissertation may take years of commitment. Staying motivated throughout is
difficult for some students. Not only must you deal with the feelings of
anxiety that accompany such a high-stakes, drawn-out process, but you must keep
yourself motivated to work even when you know you will not be finished for a
long time. Some Ph.D. students have difficulty setting reasonable goals for
themselves and therefore feel insecure and intimidated by the seemingly
insurmountable amount of writing they have yet to finish.



Time Off



Ph.D. students may become so consumed by their work that they need to
step away from it. While working on a dissertation takes intense dedication and
commitment, it is equally important to budget time in your schedules for social
activities, friends, family and downtime. Writing non-stop for long periods of
time can make stress levels skyrocket, so scheduling time to take a break from
writing is crucial to maintaining a healthy attitude.

HOW TO WRITE DOCTORAL LEVEL PAPERS



How to Write Doctoral Level Papers





The life of a
scholar is not an easy one, but it certainly can be satisfying. One of the
greatest accomplishment for a person aspiring to do doctorate-level work is the
ability to write papers that illuminate our knowledge of a topic. A
doctoral-level paper must also take into account the scholarship that has come
before and build upon it. Here is how to take your important idea and turn it
into a publishable paper that will help you build your vita and increase your
standing in your chosen field.



Instructions



v
Propose a
thesis that no one else has thought or written about. This is a tall order, but
doctoral-level writers can't simply rework other papers. This will manifest
itself in different ways, depending on your field. In the field of Renaissance
literature, for example, everyone agrees with the possible thesis, "Hamlet
was really depressed." Go a step further: "Hamlet's depression
presages the Freudian concept of the self."



v .Begin your paper with an
anecdote that illustrates your point or orients the reader in the worldview
you're focusing upon. Even though people who hold doctorates are generally very
smart, they still enjoy a good story and prefer reading something that tries to
entertain as well as educate. These anecdotes may come from your research or
even personal experiences.











v
Structure
your doctoral paper so each of your bits of evidence follow logically after
your introduction. Often, a great paper will feature proof that mounts upon
itself, building its own argument. According to the Writing Center at the
University of North Carolina, "your instructor will probably expect
something more complicated" than a simplistic argument. Use the evidence
that you've gathered to contribute to your overall thesis.



v .React to the previous scholarship relating to your thesis. In
some ways, you may be saying that the great scholars of the past are incorrect
or didn't think as deeply as you have. These papers from the past are the
foundation of what you are proposing. For example, you might say, "In His
book 'The Shakespearean Stage 1574 -- 1642,' Andrew Garr explains in detail the
repertory system. What he fails to notice is..." Other scholars will then
know where you got your ideas and in what ways you are challenging them.



v Scrupulously cite all of those references you've used. A
scholar's ideas are his or her bread and butter, so you really can't use their
writing without crediting their work. Use in-text citation, mentioning the
author's name in the text of your paper, and include the book or journal you've
used in a works cited page or bibliography.



v
Format your
paper correctly. Each field may use a different standard. Psychology papers,
for example, use the American Psychological Association (APA) format. Other
topics in the humanities adhere to the Modern Languages Association (MLA)
format. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab offers assistance with
adhering to the proper format for your doctoral-level paper.



v .Submit to the rigors of peer review. If the editor of a journal
is interested in publishing your doctoral-level paper, he or she will submit it
to anonymous scholars in your field who will examine it closely. The feedback
you receive will likely be tough but fair. While you don't have to take every
note into account, the peer review process strengthens scholarship and forces
you to make your papers even better. As a Web site from the University of Texas
at Austin points out, "publications that don't use peer review (Time,
Cosmo, Salon) just rely on the judgment of the editors whether an article is up
to snuff or not." Peer review ensures that several experienced scholars
see any given paper, vouching for its quality.



v Submit to the rigors of peer review. If the editor of a journal
is interested in publishing your doctoral-level paper, he or she will submit it
to anonymous scholars in your field who will examine it closely. The feedback
you receive will likely be tough but fair. While you don't have to take every
note into account, the peer review process strengthens scholarship and forces
you to make your papers even better. As a Web site from the University of Texas
at Austin points out, "publications that don't use peer review (Time,
Cosmo, Salon) just rely on the judgment of the editors whether an article is up
to snuff or not." Peer review ensures that several experienced scholars
see any given paper, vouching for its quality.







HOW TO WRITE A GRADUATE LEVEL RESEARCH PAPER



How to Write a Graduate-Level Research paper





Writing a graduate-level research paper takes a
great deal of thought, time and resources, because of the sheer expectation
placed upon graduate students. At this level in your education, you are not
only expected to present existing ideas on a particular topic in a research
paper, but you are also expected to take those ideas and based on what you
learned, form new theories and ways of looking at a topic through critical
thinking. And with other classes and just life getting in the way, the thought
of writing a graduate-level research paper can be enough to induce a headache
in the smartest student in class. Here are some tips to help you along in the
process.





Instructions





Organize Your Research Before Beginning to Write



v
Do your
research. Try to stick with educational/professional periodicals or publications.
At the graduate level, you are expected to provide a well-rounded list of
resources, including magazine/newspaper articles regarding your topic,
scholarly/professional journals, educational books and more. Before you ever
begin writing, do as much research as you can about the topic. Remember, too
much information is definitely better than not enough, so print out/copy as
much as you can about your topic.



v Organize all of your notes and materials. Highlight the
important information and/or anything you think you might want to use in your
paper. Otherwise, it may get lost in the pile, and your paper simply won't be
as informative as you would like it to be. So, take your time and scan through
everything you have about your topic, notating the most important points of the
info.



v Create an outline---and stick to it. The outline is the
foundation of your paper and the guide you will use to write. The outline will
help you to organize your thoughts and be sure you are including the right
types and amounts of information about your topic. Be as detailed on your
outline as possible, right down to actual thoughts and ideas you want to
include in your paper. Look over your outline and make sure it reads clearly
and concisely; if it does, chances are your paper will as well.



v When you begin writing, be clear with your thoughts and don't
simply regurgitate information from your books. Form your own ideas about the
material. For every statement you make, particularly if it is opinionated in
nature, be sure you have facts to back it up. Cite material used from other
authors or publications. Be critical and inquisitive in your writing and
ask/answer the tough questions about your topic. This will show that not only
do you have a good grasp on the background of your topic, but you also have
thought about it and formed your own ideas regarding what you are writing
about.



v Take your time when
writing. This is important and where many graduate students sabotage
themselves. Trying to write a graduate-level research paper at the last minute
is next to impossible if you want a good grade. Don't try to cram a
graduate-level paper writing session into two days before the paper is due. Try
to write it at least two weeks before the due date to give yourself plenty of
time to self- and peer-edit.



v Edit yourself and get an editor. Do a spellcheck. Read it out
loud. Mark any mistakes you see with a red pen. Make sure what you wrote
actually makes sense. Then, ask a peer or professor to review your paper for
you. Ask your reviewer to be very critical, because in the end, this will only
make your paper better. Ask this person for his or her thoughts on your writing
style as well as the content. Also, ask him or her to pay attention to spelling
and grammar, organization, presentation and anything else he or she can point
out.



v Read it over one more time and submit it. Once you've made all
of the changes, read it over one more time. Make any other small changes as you
go. Then, submit it and let it go. Don't obsess about the paper, and be content
with the fact that you did the best job possible.





WHAT IS A GRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS



What Is a Graduate School Thesis?



A graduate thesis is a vital component of the requirements for
students seeking to obtain their graduate degree. The thesis is a formal paper
with a definite purpose that seeks to advance a point of analysis reached by
the student in the course of their research. In order to do so, students are
asked to come up with a new query, hypothesis or investigation and go forth to
resolve or answer the question at hand.



Significance



The graduate thesis
is a requisite work that candidates of various advanced programs, degrees and
certifications must complete.



Types



The
particular criteria, procedures, guidelines and style requirements of a
graduate thesis may differ according to the student's school, major or level of
study.



Features



Generally, a
graduate thesis employs a format that includes a title page, abstract, table of
contents, body and inclusive bibliography.



Process



Within
the thesis process, a student must present a prospectus (this acts as a
proposal and outline of sorts, conveying the intention of the thesis) to their
thesis committee.



Identification



There
are numerous steps when it comes to the writing process of a graduate thesis,
as students must illustrate the purpose of the paper, gather relevant data and
resources, create an outline for their work, organize their findings and
sources in an effective way, analyze and finally write and present the
completed work.



Approval & Defense





Once
a graduate thesis is completed, it has to be signed off on and approved by
necessary faculty and thesis committee members. This may also include the
thesis defense or oral examination, where the student is asked questions
regarding their overall work, research and conclusions.



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