Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering

Bullion


Bullion

A metal is deemed to be precious if it is rare. The discovery of new sources of ore or improvements in mining or refining processes may cause the value of a precious metal to diminish. The status of a "precious" metal can also be determined by high demand or market value. Precious metals in bulk form are known as bullion and are traded on commodity markets. Bullion metals may be cast into ingots or minted into coins. The defining attribute of bullion is that it is valued by its mass and purity rather than by a face value as money]

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Purity and mass

A 500 gram silver bullion bar produced byJohnson Matthey

The level of purity varies from issue to issue. "Three nines" (99.9%) purity is common. The purest mass-produced bullion coins are in the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf series, which go up to 99.999% purity. Note that a 100% pure bullion is impossible, as absolute purity in extracted and refined metals is asymptotically approached.[citation needed] Historically, coins had a certain amount of weight of alloy, with the purity a local standard. The Krugerrand is the first modern example of measuring in "pure gold"; it should contain at least 12/11 ounces of at least 11/12 pure gold. Still more bullion coins (for example: British Sovereign) state neither the purity nor the fine-gold weight on the coin but are recognized and consistent in their composition,[citation needed] and many historically stated a denomination in currency (example: American Double Eagle).

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Coinage

Vienna Philharmonic 1oz coin

Many nations mint bullion coins. Although nominally issued as legal tender, these coins' face value as currency is far below that of their value as bullion. For instance, Canada mints a gold bullion coin (the Gold Maple Leaf) at a face value of containing one troy ounce (31.1035 g) of gold—as of May 2011, this coin is worth about ,,500 CAD as bullion.[3] Bullion coins' minting by national governments gives them some numismatic value in addition to their bullion value, as well as certifying their purity.

American Platinum Eagle bullion coin

One of the largest bullion coins in the world is the 10,000 dollar Australian Gold Nugget coin minted in Australia which consists of a full kilogram of 99.9% pure gold. There have been a small number of larger bullion coins, but they are impractical to handle and not produced in mass quantities. China has produced coins in very limited quantities (less than 20 pieces minted) that exceed 260 troy ounces (8 kg) of gold.[citation needed] Austria has minted a coin containing 31 kg of gold (the Vienna Philharmonic Coin minted in 2004 with a face value of 100,000 euro). As a stunt to publicise the 99.999% pure one-ounce Canadian Gold Maple Leaf series, in 2007 the Royal Canadian Mint made a 100 kg 99.999% gold coin, with a face value of $1 million, and now manufactures them to order, but at a substantial premium over the market value of the gold.


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Economic use

1kg gold bar (ingot)

Gold and silver, and sometimes other precious metals, are often seen as hedges against both inflation and economic downturn.Silver coins have become popular with collectors due to their relative affordability, and, unlike most gold and platinum issues which are valued based upon the markets, silver issues are more often valued as collectables, far higher than their actual bullion value.

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Mining Engineering


Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.

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Assuit University (Home University), Egypt


Imperial College, London, UK


Faculty of Engineering, Al-Mergeb University, Libya


King Saud University, KSA

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Course 2016/17-1


  1. Computer Applications in Surveying  CE 473
  2. Surveying 1 CE 370
  3. Photogrammetry CE 474
  4. Surveying II  CE 371
  5. Design I  (round 4) CE 498




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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sameh_Ahmed5/?ev=hdr_xprf

Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2015 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 24-26 March 2015 with a Paper and Poster

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"Production of Titania Nano-particles from Wast-

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Results of M2 CE311

Student Conference



Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying  I -  CE 370 - 2016-2017-1




Power point


Sheets


Lecture notes


Second Midterm Exam



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Model Answer
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CE 371 Course

Surveying II - CE 371 - 2016-2017-1




Lectures





First midterm exam


Lab


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CE473 Course

Computer Applications in Surveying

CE 473



Lecturers


Power point


Sheets


Exams + Quizzes


Results




CE 474 Course

2015-2016-2 - Photogrammetry  CE474




Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point

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Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Quizzes
Available Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Lecture notes

Report 1  Cameras Report

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60 marks Exams

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CE 360 Course

Environmental Engineering 1



CE 360: Environmental Engineering 1

37-2

Y PP0-1-2-3,4 Power point
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Water quality Poster + Climate Change Reports
will be announced (Quiz #2 will be using D2L- Online Quizzes

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GE 306 Course

Engineering Report Writing


GE 306: Engineering Report Writing

CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2 - CE 499

Meeting on 14-4-2015

Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA

Students:

Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

CE 360-Summer Course

Environmental Engineering I


Welcome to CE360 second Term 2015-2016 

Engineering Practice

 Engineering Practice GE 307

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Mobile: 00966598311652

s.mohamed@mu.edu.sa

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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Your frequent visit to my website has helped  a lot to get the 2nd place in the university competition in the  year 1434-2013... Thanks very mush and please keep following my work

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CE 212 - Summer Course

Properties and Strength of Materials 1

CE 212

Y from PP0 to PP 6 + PDF Power points
Y Midterm #2 + Model Answer + results Exams
Y lab 3 Labs

Solution of Quiz 4 + Results HW


CE 311- Summer Course

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

CE 311

M2+ model Answer + PP 1-9 = PDF 1-9 all are available

Sheets 2 + 4 with model Answers

Results of M2



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