1. The estimation of surface values at unsampled points based on known surface values of surrounding points. Interpolation can be used to estimate elevation, rainfall, temperature, chemical dispersion, or other spatially-based phenomena. Interpolation is commonly a raster operation, but it can also be done in a vector environment using a TIN surface model. There are several well-known interpolation techniques, including spline and kriging.
2. In the context of linear referencing, the calculation of measure values for a route between two known measure values.