Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department

VLSI

The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was "very large-scale integration" (VLSI). The development started with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s, and continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2009.

Multiple developments were required to achieve this increased density. Manufacturers moved to smaller design rules and cleaner fabrication facilities, so that they could make chips with more transistors and maintain adequate yield. The path of process improvements was summarized by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Design tools improved enough to make it practical to finish these designs in a reasonable time. The more energy efficient CMOS replaced NMOS and PMOS, avoiding a prohibitive increase in power consumption.

In 1986 the first one megabit RAM chips were introduced, which contained more than one million transistors. Microprocessor chips passed the million transistor mark in 1989 and the billion transistor mark in 2005.[15] The trend continues largely unabated, with chips introduced in 2007 containing tens of billions of memory transistors.

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Almajmaah University


IEEE


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http://science.doe.gov/grants/index.asp

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

http://www.eere.energy.gov/


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