Dr. Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil

Electrical Engineering Department


In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector,[2] or – as here – simply a vector) is a geometric object that has a magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added according to the parallelogram law of addition. A Euclidean vector is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B, and denoted by overrightarrow{AB}.

Vectors play an important role in physics: velocity and acceleration of a moving object and forces acting on it are all described by vectors. Many other physical quantities can be usefully thought of as vectors. Although most of them do not represent distances (except, for example, position or displacement), their magnitude and direction can be still represented by the length and direction of an arrow. The mathematical representation of a physical vector depends on the coordinate system used to describe it. Other vector-like objects that describe physical quantities and transform in a similar way under changes of the coordinate system include pseudovectors and tensors.

It is important to distinguish Euclidean vectors from the more general concept in linear algebra of vectors as elements of a vector space. General vectors in this sense are fixed-size, ordered collections of items as in the case of Euclidean vectors, but the individual items may not be real numbers, and the normal Euclidean concepts of length, distance and angle may not be applicable. (A vector space with a definition of these concepts is called an inner product space.) In turn, both of these definitions of vector should be distinguished from the statistical concept of a random vector. The individual items in a random vector are individual real-valued random variables, and are often manipulated using the same sort of mathematical vector and matrix operations that apply to the other types of vectors, but otherwise usually behave more like collections of individual values. Concepts of length, distance and angle do not normally apply to these vectors, either; rather, what links the values together is the potential correlations among them.

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