Dr. Ahmad Fayez Al-Zu'be

Assistant Professor

.Language Techniq

Language Teaching Techniques

Eng. 406

Grammar-translation method

The grammar translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rulesand then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development.


Direct method

The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, and is often (but not exclusively) used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language.It was established in Germany and France around 1900 and contrasts with the Grammar translation method and other traditional approaches.

In general, teaching focuses on the development of oral skills.[2] Characteristic features of the direct method are:

  • teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials.
  • teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language).
  • centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation).
  • focus on question-answer patterns.

Audio-lingual method

This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct method. Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn't focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar.

Applied to language instruction, and often within the context of the language lab, this means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction—everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output; the teacher is expecting a particular response and not providing that will result in a student receiving negative feedback. This type of activity, for the foundation of language learning, is in direct opposition with communicative language teaching.

Oral drills

Drills and pattern practice are typical of the Audiolingual method. (Richards, J.C. et-al. 1986) These include

  • Repetition: where the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it.
  • Inflection: Where one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated.
  • Replacement: Where one word is replaced by another.
  • Restatement: The student re-phrases a utterance.


Inflection : Teacher : I ate the sandwich. Student : I ate the sandwiches.
Replacement : Teacher : He bought the car for half-price. Student : He bought it for half-price.
Restatement : Teacher : Tell me not to smoke so often. Student : Don't smoke so often!

The following example illustrates how more than one sort of drill can be incorporated into one practice session :
“Teacher: There's a cup on the table ... repeat
Students: There's a cup on the table
Teacher: Spoon
Students: There's a spoon on the table
Teacher: Book
Students: There's a book on the table
Teacher: On the chair
Students: There's a book on the chair



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