Physiology Ex1



1. The process whereby one cell ingests or "eats" another, as when a white blood cell destroys an invading organism or a damaged body cell by engulfing it, is known as

a) Phagocytosis

b) Synergism

c) Holism

d) Metabolism

2. Exchanges of nutrients, gases, wastes, etc. Between blood and tissue cells occurs a__.

a) Arterioles

b) Capillaries

c) Veins

d) Venules

3. The mitral valve is on the same side of the heart as the _________________.

a) Superior vena cava

b) Tricuspid valve

c) Pulmonary semilunar valve

d) Aortic semilunar valve

4. Heart muscle is also called _________.

a) Endothelium.

b) Endocardium.

c) Epicardium.

d) Myocardium.

5. Blood flows from the right ventricle into the ___________.

a) Pulmonary trunk

b) Pulmonary veins

c) Coronary artery

d) Right atrium

6. Fighting infection and foreign invaders is one of the primary functions of the ________.

a) Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

b) Leukocytes (white blood cells)

c) Thrombocytes (platelets)

d) All of the above

7. Blood exits the left ventricle in which one of the following blood vessels?

a) Aorta

b) Pulmonary trunk

c) Pulmonary vein

d) Superior vena cava

8. The lymphatic system serves. . .

a) To collect and recycle fluid that has leaked out of the capillaries.

b) To phagocytize, or ingest, bacteria, old red blood cells, etc.

c) As an important part of the immune system.

d) All of the above.

9. Blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart are called:

a) Arteries.

b) Capillaries.

c) Coronaries.

d) Veins.

10. The product of the stroke volume and the heart rate is known as the ___________.

a) Blood pressure

b) Cardiac output

c) End-diastolic volume

d) End-systolic volume

11. A foreign substance, usually a protein, that stimulates the immune system to react, such as by producing antibodies is a ______________.

a) Allergen

b) Antigen

c) Histamine

d) Interferon

12. The tricuspid valve prevents flow of blood from the _________________.

a) Right ventricle to the right atrium

b) Right ventricle to the pulmonary arch

c) Left ventricle to the left atrium

d) Right atrium into the left atrium

13. Name the conductile tissue in the heart located on the posterior wall of the right atrium that has the highest rate of depolarization in the heart.

a) Medulla oblongata

b) Atrioventricular (AV) node

c) Sinoatrial (SA) node

d) Cranial nerve X - Vagus nerve

14. What is the portion of the ECG that indicates ventricular repolarization?

a) P wave

b) QRS complex

c) T wave

d) P-Q interval

15. When listening to the heart sounds (frequently given as lub, dup), __________.

a) The first sound is caused by closure of the tricuspid valve, the second by closure of the mitral valve.

b) Both sounds are caused by contraction of the ventricles, followed by contraction of the atria.

c) The first sound is caused by closure of the AV valves, the second by closure of the semilunar valves.

d) The first sound is caused by contraction of the Purkinje fibers, the second by contraction of the papillary muscles.

16. You are not an athlete and you are not physical fit. If you suddenly partake in physical exercise, then the increased demands of such vigorous exercise on your body are met primarily by:

a) Increased stroke volume.

b) Increased heart rate.

c) Increased blood volume.

d) All the above are correct.

17. Identify the final portion of the intrinsic conduction system of the heart, which carries the wave of depolarization over the ventricles causing them to contract from the heart apex toward the atria:

a) Atrioventricular bundle

b) Atrioventricular node

c) Purkinje fibers

d) Sinoatrial node

18. This heart valve prevents the return of blood to the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk:

a) Aortic semilunar valve

b) Bicuspid valve

c) Mitral valve

d) Pulmonary semilunar valve

19. Which of the following does not aid the return of venous blood to the heart from the lower extremities?

a) Valves in veins

b) The muscle "pump"

c) The respiratory "pump"

d) Gravity

20. Which of the following indicates atrial depolarization in an electrocardiogram?

a) P wave

b) QRS complex

c) T wave

d) U wave

21. Which on of the following blood vessels carries oxygen-rich blood?

a) Coronary sinus

b) Pulmonary trunk

c) Pulmonary vein

d) Superior vena cava

22. The cardiac output of the heart is:

a) The amount of blood pushed from a ventricle with each beat.

b) The amount of blood pushed from each ventricle in one minute.

c) The number of beats per minute.

d) The amount of blood entering the pulmonary circulation.

23. This carries the most blood at any given time in the body

a) Veins

b) Capillary Beds

c) Vena Cava

d) Aorta

24. Which one of the following blood vessels returns blood to the left side of the heart or left atrium?

a) Aorta

b) Pulmonary artery

c) Pulmonary vein

d) Superior vena cava

25. Freshly oxygenated blood from pulmonary circulation is first received by the:

a) Right ventricle.

b) Left ventricle.

c) Right atrium.

d) Left atrium.

26. Capillary beds are drained by:

a) Arterioles.

b) Venules.

c) Veins.

d) Arteries.

27. Any decrease in the elasticity of arteries is known as:

a) Varicose veins.

b) Atherosclerosis.

c) Arteriosclerosis.

d) Thrombophlebitis.

28. The tiniest of the blood vessels, and the place where the exchange of nutrients and waste products takes place between the blood and the tissue fluids, is the ________.

a) Capillaries

b) Venules

c) Arterioles

d) Aorta

29. The following contract together to pump blood

a) Right atrium with the right ventricle and left atrium with the left ventricle

b) Right atrium with left atrium and right ventricles with left ventricle

c) Tricuspid valve and mitral valve

d) Aorta, pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein

30. The correct sequence of parts that function to carry cardiac impulses is:

a) AV Node ---> SA Node ---> Purkinje fibers ---> Atrioventricular bundle

b) SA Node ---> Purkinje fibers ---> AV Node ---> Atrioventricular bundle

c) SA Node ---> AV Node ---> Atrioventricular bundle ---> Purkinje fibers

d) Atrioventricular bundle ---> SA Node ---> AV Node ---> Purkinje fibers

31. Blood pressure is the measure of

a) Pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels

b) Pressure exerted by the blood on the arteries

c) Pressure exerted by the blood on the veins

d) Pressure exerted by the blood on the aorta

32. When neutrophils and macrophages squeeze out of capillaries to fight off infection it is called:

a) Phagocytosis

b) Hemolysis

c) Interleukin

d) Diapedesis

33. During a great battle between your WBC's and an aggressive microbe, an inflammatory response has been initiated. Redness and edema has kicked in what else does the body do to protect itself?

a) Histamine cause vasodilation

b) Hypothalmus raises the thermostat

c) Neutrophils engulf and destroy the microbe

d) All of the above

34. Specificity and memory are associated with which body defense mechanism?

a) Inflammatory response

b) Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils

c) Interferon

d) T cell and B cell responses

35. An additional chemical defense found in tears and saliva?

a) T lymphocytes

b) Saline

c) Lysozyme

d) Interferon

36. What is the most common portal of entry for diseases, into the body?

a) Respiratory system

b) Endocrine system

c) Hematacrit system

d) Cardiovascular system

37. This gland shrinks in size during adulthood, and has hormones that function in maturation of T-lymphocytes:

a) Lymph nodes

b) Thymus

c) Spleen


38. Nonspecific resistance is

a. The body's ability to ward off diseases.

b. The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.

c. The body's defense against a particular pathogen.

d. The lack of resistance.

39. What is an Antibody?

a. An antimicrobial substance applied to a living tissue to prevent infection.

b. Programmed cell death

c. A protein generated by the immune system in response to a foreign substance.

d. A chemical involved in inflammation.

40. Which substance induces fever?

a) Pyrogen

b) Pus

c) Edema

d) Interferon

41. Major function(s) of the lymphatic system is/are?

a) Provide route for return of extracellular fluid

b) Act as drain off for inflammatory response

c) Render surveillance, recognition , and protection against foreign materials via lymphocytes, phagocytes, and antibodies.

d) All of the above

42. This conducts electricity like nerves

a) Epicardium

b) Pericardium

c) Myocardium

d) Subvalaular Apparatus

43. Systolic Pressure is

a) An average of 120 mm Hg

b) Lowers steadily during ventricle systole

c) The highest when blood is being pumped out of the auricle into ventricle

d)An average of 80 mm Hg

44. The heart has how many chambers?

a) One

b) Two

c) Three


Good luck


45. Where is the site of maturation for a B cell?

a) thymus

b) bone marrow

c) pancreas

d) cortex

46. Which of the following is NOT true during ventricular systole?

a) AV valves close

b) Intraventricular pressure rises

c) Semilunar valves close

d) The atria are relaxed

e) Chordae tendinae prevent AV valve flaps from flipping up into the atria


a) Right atrium

b) Sinus venosus

c) Left ventricle

d) Left atrium

48. Most often, systemic arterial blood pressure is measured in this artery with the auscultatory method, using a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer:

a) Aorta

b) Brachial artery

c) Carotid artery

d) Femoral artery

49. Which part of the nodal system is responsible for setting the pace of contraction in the heart?

a) Sinoatrial (SA) node

b) Atrioventricular (AV) node

c) Bundle branches

d) Purkinje fibers

50. Blood that is leaving the right ventricle first enters the:

a) Pulmonary trunk.

b) Aorta.

c) Mitrial valve.

d) Pulmonary capillaries.

51. Which of the following is not a mechanical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection?

A) Layers of cells

B) Tears

C) Saliva

§ D) Lysozyme

E) None of the above

The cardiovascular system

E) None of these, only nerves conduct electricity

4. This is the pacemaker of the heart

A) AV node

B) Purkinje fibers

C) AV Bundle

§ D) SA node

E) None of these, a pacemaker is surgically inserted

5. When reading an EKG, this letter shows the depolarization from the AV node down to the AV bundle

A) S

B) P

C) U

D) T

§ E) Q

6. The T wave in an EKG shows

A) Resting potential

B) Atrial depolarization

C) SA node excitation

§ D) Ventricle repolarization

E) Purkinje Excitation

10. End diastolic volume in human

§ A)120mL




The Immune System

5-Which of the following does complement protein perform

A) They cause antibody release

B) T cell development

C) The release if histamine

D) Promotes tissue repair

§ E) Mast cell degranulation

8-An antigen is:

a. a chemical messenger that is released by virus infected cells

b. something that coats the inside of lungs, causing infection

c. a protein or other molecule that is recognized as non-self

d. a thick yellow-white fluid

10-When a macrophage ingests an invading bacteria and takes the antigen to a lymph node, what happens next?

A) the macrophage will present it to the first B-cell it encounters, and the B-cell will in turn change its surface receptors to match the antigen

§ B) a B-cell will only become activated if it already has a match for the antigen

C) a matching B-cell will become activated into a cytotoxic T-cell

D) the cells of the lymph node will release histamine

E) the lymph node will increase production of neutrophils

52. What serous membrane encloses the heart?

a) Pericardium

b) Peritoneum

c) Pleura

d) Synovial membrane

53. What affect does the vagus nerve have on the heart?

a) Slow steady heartbeat resulting in a stronger heartbeat.

b) Increase heart rate 25%.

c) None at all.

d) It kills the person instantly.

1. The major artery that supplies blood to the body is the ________.

a) Superior vena cava

b) Inferior vena cava

c) Aorta

d) Femoral

2. The heart's pacemaker is the. . .

a) Sinoatrial (SA) node.

Autonomic nervous system.
Atrioventricular (AV) node.

True or false:

since heart disease is mostly a result of heredity, there is little that we can do to prevent it.



3. Fighting infection and foreign invaders is one of the primary functions of the .

a) Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

Leukocytes (white blood cells)
Thrombocytes (platelets)
None of the above

4. The single major cause of artery disease is ___________, the thickening and hardening of arterial walls by deposits of fatty materials.

a) Obesity


Since heart disease is mostly a result of heredity, there is little that we can do to prevent it. False

54. The cusps of the atrioventricular (AV) valves are anchored to the papillary muscles by the:

a) Chordae tendinae.

b) Coronary sinus.

c) Fossa ovalis.

d) Intercalated discs.

e) Pericardium.

55. The layer of serous membrane that covers the heart and lies closest to the sternum is the

a) Endocardium

b) Epicardium

c) Myocardium

d) Parietal pericardium

e) Visceral pericardium

56. The umbilical vein carries:

a) Metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide from the fetus to the placenta.

b) Oxygen and foods from the fetus to the placenta.

c) From the navel directly into the inferior vena cava.

d) Oxygen and foods from the placenta to the fetus.

57. What is the circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver called?

a) Coronary circuit

b) Hepatic portal system

c) Pulmonary circuit

d) Renal portal system

e) Systemic circuit

58. What is the first branch off the base of the aorta?

a) Brachiocephalic artery

b) Left common carotid artery

c) Right common carotid artery

d) Left subclavian artery

e) Coronary artery

59. What is the specific name of the tissue that lines all the chambers of the heart?

a) Endothelium

b) Endocardium

c) Simple cuboidal epithelium

d) Simple squamous epithelium

60. Which of the following would NOT cause an increase in the heart rate?

a) Exercise

b) Sympathetic stimulation

c) Stimulation of the vagus nerve

d) Release of epinephrine into the blood

e) An increase in body temperature

61. Which of the following fetal structures carries the most oxygenated blood?

a) Ductus arteriosus

b) Umbilical arteries

c) Ductus venosus

d) Foramen ovale

e) Umbilical vein

62. Compared to an artery, the wall of a vein differs in which of the following ways?

a) It consists of three coats called tunics.

b) It is lined by a thin layer of endothelium.

c) It contains smooth muscle.

d) The middle tunic is thin.

e) Veins have an extra layer of muscle.

63. During fetal existence, this short blood vessel connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta allowing blood to bypass the fetal lungs (which are nonfunctional):

a) Ductus arteriosus

b) Ductus venosus

c) Foramen ovale

d) Umbilical artery

e) Umbilical vein

64. This unique feature connects the anterior and posterior blood supplies of the brain providing more than one route for blood to reach brain tissue in a given area:

a) Bundle branches

b) Coronary circulation

c) Ductus arteriosus

d) Hepatic portal circulation

e) Circle of Willis

65. Which of the following blood vessels is NOT part of the systemic circulation?

a) Carotid arteries

b) Coronary artery

c) Inferior vena cava

d) Pulmonary artery

66. Which of the following is NOT correct concerning the location of the heart?

a) It is inferior to the lungs.

b) It is posterior to the diaphragm.

c) It is superior to the lungs.

d) It is anterior to the vertebrae.

Which of the following is involved in anchoring the AV valve flaps to the walls of the ventricles?

a) Adhesions

b) Cuspidors

c) Chordae tendinae

d) Fenestrations

e) Purkinje fibers

67. Which blood vessel tunic is composed of smooth muscle and controls the diameter of the vessel?

a) Tunica intima

b) Tunica media

c) Tunica externa

d) Myocardium

68. Which structures of fetal circulation are designed to bypass the lungs in an unborn baby?

a) Umbilical arteries and veins

b) Aorta and vena cava

c) Hepatic vein and aorta

d) Ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale

e) Pulmonary arteries and veins

69. Which vessel delivers blood to the liver from the digestive organs, spleen and pancreas?

a) Umbilical vein

b) Superior vena cava

c) Superior mesenteric artery

d) Hepatic portal vein

How many layers are there in a blood vessel?

a) 3

b) 1

c) 2

d) 4

70. Which of the following is a condition resulting from inflammation of a vein which contains a clot?

a) Varicose veins

b) Atherosclerosis

c) Arteriosclerosis

d) Thrombophlebitis

71. Which condition is the result of lack of oxygen to the muscle of the heart causing extreme pain in the chest?

a) Angina pectoris

b) An infarct

c) Arteriosclerosis

d) Heart block

e) Fibrillation

72. Lack of blood supply to the heart, resulting in rapid, uncoordinated shuddering of the heart muscle, is called:

a) Angina pectoria.

b) An infarct.

c) Arteriosclerosis.

d) Heart block.

e) Fibrillation.

73. Which of the following would NOT lead to an increase in cardiac output?

a) An increase in stroke volume

b) An increase in heart rate

c) Release of epinephrine into the bloodstream

d) A decrease in venous return

e) An increase in sympathetic stimulation.

74. Which of the following factors does not contribute to vasoconstriction and hypertension?

a) Alcohol

b) Cold

c) Nicotine

d) Renin

5. The blood cell type responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide is the ________.

a) Platelet

White blood cell
Red blood cell
All of the above

6. A major source of body energy, transported to the cells by the plasma, is ________.

a) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Coenzyme Q-10

7. Pernicious anemia results when the person's stomach fails to produce intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the normal absorption of vitamin ________.

a) B-1


8. The risk factors for stroke include ________.

a) Smoking

Diabetes mellitus
All of the above

9. What herb was brewed by american indians to treat dropsy (edema due to heart problems)?

a) Ginkgo biloba

licorice root

10. The circulatory system is responsible for

a) The transport of dissolved materials throughout the body.

The transport of oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to every cell in the body.
The transport of the waste products of cell metabolism to the lungs and kidneys where they can be expelled from the body.
The transport of hormones and certain cells of the immune system.
All of the above.

11. The lymphatic system serves. .

a) To collect and recycle fluid that has leaked out of the capillaries.

To phagocytize, or ingest, bacteria, old red blood cells, etc.
To phagocytize, or ingest, impurities such as toxins and cellular waste.
As an important part of the immune system.
All of the above.

12. The blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide are the. .

a) Platelets (thrombocytes)

White blood cells (leukocytes)
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
All of the above

13. Pernicious anemia results when the person's stomach fails to produce intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the normal absorption of vitamin . . .

a) B-1


14. This herb, from which the drug digitalis was derived, was brewed by american indians to treat dropsy (edema due to heart problems):

a) Ginkgo Biloba

Licorice Root

15. This herb has been shown to be effective in helping normalize high blood pressure. It has also proven useful as a "blood thinner," since it inhibits blood clotting; and has been shown to help lower cholesterol levels for those who have high serum cholesterol.

a) Hawthorn

Coenzyme Q-10

16. This herb is widely used by herbalists around the world for cardiac problems, particularly to strengthen a weakened heart. Scientists have discovered that it also dilates blood vessels allowing blood to flow more freely and thereby lowers the blood pressure. It also acts directly on the heart muscle to help heal damaged heart tissue.

a) Hawthorn

Coenzyme Q-10

17. This "vitamin-like" enzyme and strong antioxidant is necessary for the cells to produce energy. Studies have shown that most heart patients are deficient in this enzyme and that supplementation can sometimes dramatically relieve heart disease symptoms. Remarkable results have been noted particularly in patients with congestive heart failure.

a) Hawthorn

Coenzyme q-10

18. This trace mineral is synergistic with vitamin e and has been shown to help protect against coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Animals who have had their diets supplemented with this mineral have been found to live 50% longer.

a) Hawthorn

Coenzyme Q-10

19. This herb is the most popular herbal food in germany and france, outselling other herbal products by 20 percent. It contains flavonoids like quercetin. Quercetin is the "magic" ingredient in red wine that helps protect the french from heart disease. It helps prevent heart attack by preventing cholesterol oxidation.

a) Hawthorn

Coenzyme Q-10

20. Also known as "blood sugar," this is a normal constituent of blood and a major source of body energy:

a) Plasma


21. _________ refers to the physical processes and chemical reactions occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for life.

a) Assimilation


22. Herbalists often combine herbs into formulations, usually selecting herbs that are ______ with each other.

23. Antagonistic


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First Mid-Term Examination Schedule - Second Semester 1435-1436



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Second Mid-Term Examination Schedule Second Semester 1435-1436

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