Eng 412


Can you name the 3 most important things when giving any presentation?

Number 1 is . . . Preparation

Number 2 is . . . Preparation!

Number 3 is . . . Preparation!!

Preparation is everything!

With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And

your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be

confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your

presentation. With control, you will be 'in charge' and your audience will listen positively to your message.


Before you start to prepare a presentation, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this presentation?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should

be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.


"Who am I making this presentation to?" Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always.

You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people?

Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know

already and what will they expect from you?


"Where am I making this presentation?" In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating


Time and length

"When am I making this presentation and how long will it be?" Will it be 5 minutes or 1

hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your

audience will be sleepy?


How should I make this presentation?" What approach should you use? Formal or informal?

Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety?


"What should I say?" Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should

brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your presentation. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is

relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also

need to create a title for your presentation (if you have not already been given a title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. And you will prepare your visual aids, if you have

decided to use them. But remember, in general, less is better than more (a little is better

than a lot). You can always give additional information during the questions after the presentation.


A well organised presentation with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is

therefore more effective. You should organise the points you wish to make in a logical

order. Most presentations are organised in three parts, followed by questions:




Short introduction

Body of presentation

Short conclusion

welcome your audience

introduce your subject

explain the structure of your presentation

explain rules for questions

present the subject itself

summarise your presentation

thank your audience

invite questions

Questions and Answers


When you give your presentation, you should be - or appear to be - as spontaneous as

possible. You should not read your presentation! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text.

Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don't

have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say? With

notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make notes on small, A6

cards. Some people write down just the title of each section of their talk. Some people

write down keywords to remind them. The notes will give you confidence, but because you

will have prepared your presentation fully, you may not even need them!


Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your presentation

two or three times. This will have the following benefits:

you will become more familiar with what you want to say

you will identify weaknesses in your presentation

you will be able to practise difficult pronunciations

you will be able to check the time that your presentation takes and make any

necessary modifications

So prepare, prepare, prepare! Prepare everything: words, visual aids, timing, equipment.

Rehearse your presentation several times and time it. Is it the right length? Are you

completely familiar with all your illustrations? Are they in the right order? Do you know who

the audience is? How many people? How will you answer difficult questions? Do you know

the room? Are you confident about the equipment? When you have answered all these

questions, you will be a confident, enthusiastic presenter ready to communicate the subject of your presentation to an eager audience.


Easily your most important piece of equipment

is...YOU! Make sure you're in full working

order, and check your personal presentation

carefully - if you don't, your audience will!

The overhead projector (OHP) displays overhead

transparencies (OHTs or OHPTs). It has several

advantages over the 35mm slide projector:

it can be used in daylight

the user can face the audience

the user can write or draw directly on the

transparency while in use

The whiteboard (more rarely blackboard or greenboard) is a useful

device for spontaneous writing - as in brainstorming, for example. For prepared material, the OHP might be more suitable.

The duster is used for cleaning the whiteboard. It is essential that the

duster be clean to start with. You may consider carrying your own duster just in case.

Markers are used for writing on the whiteboard (delible - you can

remove the ink) or flipchart (indelible - you cannot remove the ink). They are usually available in blue, red, black and green. Again, it's a good idea to carry a spare set of markers in case you are given some

used ones which do not write well.

"A good workman never blames his tools."

The flipchart consists of several leaves of paper that you 'flip' or turn over. Some people prefer the flipchart to the whiteboard, but its use is limited to smaller presentations.

The Slide projector - which must be used in a

darkened room - adds a certain drama. Some slide

projectors can be synchronised with audio for audio-

visual (AV) presentations. These projectors are

typically used for larger presentations. The majority take 35mm slides or transparencies (as seen here),

but projectors for 6x6cm slides are also available.

Transparencies are projected by an overhead projector or a slide projector

onto a screen - in this case a folding screen which can be packed up and transported.

The notebook computer is increasingly being used to display graphics

during presentations. It is often used in conjunction with an overhead

projector, which actually projects the image from the computer screen onto the wall screen.

Handouts are any documents or samples that you 'hand out' or distribute to

your audience. Note that it is not usually a good idea to distribute handouts

before your presentation. The audience will read the handouts instead of listening to you.


'Delivery' refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your

presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context.


Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience.

During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.

Audience Rapport

You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is

contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn -

in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.

Your objective is to communicate!

Body Language

What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to

your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses,

your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room. Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware, too,

that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or

from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the

dynamism within the audience. You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from

side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an


Cultural Considerations

Because English is so widely used around the world, it is quite possible that many members

of your audience will not be native English-speakers. In other words, they will not have an

Anglo-Saxon culture. Even within the Anglo-Saxon world, there are many differences in

culture. If we hypothetically imagine a German working for an Israeli company making a presentation in English to a Japanese audience in Korea, we can see that there are even

more possibilities for cultural misunderstanding. You should try to learn about any particular cultural matters that may affect your audience. This is one reason why preparation for your presentation is so important. Cultural differences can also be seen in body language, which we have just discussed. To a Latin from Southern France or Italy, a presenter who uses his

hands and arms when speaking may seem dynamic and friendly. To an Englishman, the same presenter may seem unsure of his words and lacking in self-confidence.

Voice quality

It is, of course, important that your audience be able to hear you clearly throughout your

presentation. Remember that if you turn away from your audience, for example towards the

whiteboard, you need to speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your

voice. Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in

at least three ways:

speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you can speak more

slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause. This is a very good technique for gaining your audience's attention.

intonation: you can change the pitch of your voice. You can speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone.

volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can again attract your audience's interest.

The important point is not to speak in the same, flat, monotonous voice throughout your

presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use to put their patients' into trance!

Visual aids

Of all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority of it enters through the eyes.

80% of what your audience learn during your presentation is learned visually (what they

see) and only 20% is learned aurally (what they hear). The significance of this is obvious:

visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication

non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spoken English - they

can rely more heavily on visual aids

It is well worth spending time in the creation of good visual aids. But it is equally important

not to overload your audience's brains. Keep the information on each visual aid to a

minimum - and give your audience time to look at and absorb this information. Remember,

your audience have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study and to understand them. Without understanding there is no communication.

Apart from photographs and drawings, some of the most useful visual aids are charts and

graphs, like the 3-dimensional ones shown here:

Piecharts are circular in shape (like a pie).

Barcharts can be vertical (as here) or horizontal.

Graphs can rise and fall.

Audience Reaction

Remain calm and polite if you receive difficult or even hostile questions during your

presentation. If you receive particularly awkward questions, you might suggest that the questioners ask their questions after your presentation.


Say what you are going to say,

Simplicity and Clarity

If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear.

Use short words and short sentences.

Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it.

In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.

Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They

are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing:

1. Toyota sold two million cars last year.

2. Two million cars were sold by Toyota last year.

Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? N°1 is

active and N°2 is passive.


When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads.

Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each

house has a number. If you are at house N° 100, you can go back to N°

50 or forward to N° 150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other

words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a

presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know

because you tell them. Because you put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called 'signposting' (or 'signalling').

During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your

presentation will be. You might say something like this:

"I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the

achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for

further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some


A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this:





Explanation of structure (now)




Summing up


He will keep this image in his head during the presentation. He may even write it down. And

throughout your presentation, you will put up signposts telling him which point you have

reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you

might say:

"That's all I have to say about Europe. Let's turn now to Asia."

When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say:

"Well, we've looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I'd like to sum up now."

And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say:

"What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..."

The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of your presentation.



Introducing the subject

Finishing one subject...

...and starting another

Analysing a point and giving


Giving an example

Dealing with questions


I'd like to start by... Let's begin by... First of all, I'll... Starting with...

I'll begin by...

Well, I've told you about...

That's all I have to say about... We've looked at... So much for...

Now we'll move on to... Let me turn now to... Next...

Turning to...

I'd like now to discuss... Let's look now at...

Where does that lead us?

Let's consider this in more detail...

What does this mean for ABC?

Translated into real terms...

For example,...

A good example of this is... As an illustration,...

To give you an example,...

To illustrate this point...

We'll be examining this point in more detail later on...

I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may...

I'll come back to this question later in my talk...

Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the end... I won't comment on this now...

Summarising and concluding


The Presentation

...say it,

In conclusion,...

Right, let's sum up, shall we? I'd like now to recap...

Let's summarise briefly what we've looked at... Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered...

If I can just sum up the main points...


First of all...then...next...after that...finally... To start with...later...to finish up...

Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):









As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a

golden rule about repetition:

1. Say what you are going to say, 2. say it,

3. then say what you have just said.

In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message. In the

introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell

your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was.

We will now consider each of these parts in more detail.


The introduction is a very important - perhaps the most important - part of your

presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should

concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to:

1. welcome your audience 2. introduce your subject

3. outline the structure of your presentation 4. give instructions about questions

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.

Function Possible language

1 Welcoming

your audience

Good Good Good Good

morning, ladies and gentlemen

morning, gentlemen

afternoon, ladies and gentleman

afternoon, everybody

2 Introducing

your subject

3 Outlining your


4 Giving


about questions

I am going to talk today about...

The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of...

To start with I'll describe the progress made this year. Then I'll mention some of the problems we've encountered and how we

overcame them. After that I'll consider the possibilities for

further growth next year. Finally, I'll summarize my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations).

Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.

I'll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation. I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.


The body is the 'real' presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be 'in control'. You will be relaxed and confident.

The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals.

Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation:

do not hurry

be enthusiastic

give time on visuals

maintain eye contact modulate your voice

look friendly

keep to your structure

use your notes

signpost throughout

remain polite when dealing with difficult questions


Use the conclusion to:

1. Sum up

2. (Give recommendations if appropriate) 3. Thank your audience 4. Invite questions

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.


1 Summing up

2 Giving


Possible language

To conclude,...

In conclusion,...

Now, to sum up...

So let me summarise/recap what I've said.

Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.

In conclusion, my recommendations are...

I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.

3 Thanking your


4 Inviting questions


Many thanks for your attention.

May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.

Can I answer any questions?

Are there any questions?

Do you have any questions?

Are there any final questions?

Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful

for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response

in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to

keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it's your decision, and you

should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask

difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve

attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.


...then say what you have just said.

In this seminar, you have learned:

to allow plenty of time for reparation

to ask the all-important question-words, why? who? where? when? how? and what?

to structure your presentation into introduction, body, conclusion and questions

to write notes based on keywords

to rehearse your presentation several times and modify it as necessary

to select the right equipment for the job

to use equipment effectively

to make use of clear, powerful visual aids that do not overload your audience

to use clear, simple language, avoiding jargon

to use active verbs and concrete facts

to explain the structure of your presentation at the beginning so that your listeners

know what to expect

to link each section of your presentation

to signpost your presentation from beginning to end so that your listeners know

where they are

to say what you are going to say, say it, and say what you have just said

to overcome your nerves

to establish audience rapport

to be aware of your body language


to to to to

understand cultural differences

control the quality of your voice

maintain interest by varying the speed, volume and pitch of your voice

deal with listeners' questions politely

respond to your audience positively

الملفات المرفقة

  • pdf (How to prepare for your speech.pdf - B)
  • pdf (How to present a speech [Compatibility Mode].pdf - B)
  • pdf (Informative Speech [Compatibility Mode].pdf - B)
  • pdf (persuasive-argumentative speech.pdf - B)
  • pdf (speaking.pdf - B)
  • pdf (The Art of Public Speaking.pdf - B)


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الشعر الفيكتوري

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