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استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

ملخص بحث4E

Adaptive Learning Environments and e-Learning Standards*
Alexandros Paramythis and Susanne Loidl-Reisinger
Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria
[email protected]
[email protected]
Abstract: This paper examines the sufficiency of existing e-Learning standards for facilitating and supporting the introduction of adaptive techniques in computer-based learning systems. To that end, the main representational and operational requirements of adaptive learning environments are examined and contrasted against current e-Learning standards. The motivation behind this preliminary analysis is attainment of: interoperability between adaptive learning systems; reuse of adaptive learning materials; and, the facilitation of adaptively supported, distributed learning activities.
Keywords: adaptive, e-Learning, standards, personalisation, interoperability
*This is an extended version of a paper presented in the 2nd European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL 2003), November 2003.
1. Introduction
In support of this argument, this paper explores the concept of adaptivity in the context of computational learning environments. Furthermore, it attempts a high-level assessment of the sufficiency of existing e-Learning standards for driving the convergence of the two strands of systems outlined above. The intention is to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of existing e-Learning standards for specifying, and guiding the implementation of, adaptive behaviour within learning environments.
In recent years we have witnessed an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of adaptivity in e-Learning. This has been mainly driven by the realization that the ideal of individualized learning (i.e., learning tailored to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual) cannot be achieved, especially at a “massive” scale, using traditional approaches. Factors that further contribute in this direction include: the diversity in the “target” population participating in learning activities (intensified by the gradual attainment of life-long learning practices); the diversity in the access media and modalities that one can effectively utilize today in order to access, manipulate, or collaborate on, educational content or learning activities, alongside with a diversity in the context of use of such technologies; the anticipated proliferation of free educational content, which will need to be “harvested” in order to “assemble” learning objects, spaces and activities; etc.
The motivation for seeking standardization in adaptive e-Learning is directly linked to cost factors related to the development of ALEs and adaptive courses thereof (e.g., higher initial investment, higher maintenance costs) and the low level of reuse possible in the field today (due to proprietary models and representations of system knowledge, adaptation logic, etc.) (Conlan et al., 2002a). Our rationale can be briefly outlined as follows:

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