د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

ملخص بحثE5

Automatic generation of audio content for open learning resources
Andrew Brasher 1and Patrick McAndrew 2
1 Institute of Educational Technology,
The Open University, Milton Keynes
MK7 6AA. England
http://iet.open.ac.uk/people/a.j.brasher
2 Institute of Educational Technology,
The Open University, Milton Keynes
MK7 6AA. England
http://iet.open.ac.uk/people/p.mcandrew
Abstract: This paper describes how digital talking books (DTBs) with embedded functionality for
learners can be generated from content structured according to the OU OpenLearn schema. It includes
examples showing how a software transformation developed from open source components can be
used to remix OpenLearn content, and discusses issues concerning the generation of synthesised
speech for educational purposes. Factors which may affect the quality of a learner’s experience with
open educational audio resources are identified, and in conclusion plans for testing the effect of these
factors are outlined.
Keywords: accessibility, schema, semantic markup, DAISY, audio, digital talking book, usability
Interactive Demonstration: DTBs require a player which will render DTBs conforming to ANSI/
Z39.86-2005, e.g. EasyReader http://www.dolphinuk.co.uk/productdetail.asp?id=9 , or AMIS
(adaptive multimedia information system) a free, open source DTB player, http://amis.sourceforge.net/
. For other players see http://www.daisy.org/tools/tools.shtml?Cat=playback,
1 Introduction
E-learning material typically follows an implicit structure, for example by providing items such as
introduction, objectives, exercises and support resources. In some cases this structure is also made
explicit in the format of the material. Examples of explicitly declared structures include XML schemas
such as the XHTML [1] and the OpenLearn XML schema [2]. One benefit of creating and storing
material that conforms to an explicitly declared structure is that instances of the material can be
transformed to alternative structures using software. In particular for XML structured documents the
XSLT language and compatible processors are available [20]. Such transformation is an integral part
of OpenLearn reflecting the use of structured documents to author the online materials.
Transformations were developed to allow transfer of material in six formats available for download:
Moodle, printable HTML, IMS Content Package, zipped collections of resources, IMS Common
Cartridge and RSS feeds. One example of how these alternative formats have been exploited is that
educators who wish to edit the material, but do not want to engage in editing XML, may now do so by
working with one of the other formats (McAndrew & Wilson, 2008). Another example is through the
publishing of OpenLearn content in the RSS format, allowing learners to receive courses chunk by
chunk (Hirst, 2007). The delivery of the content in the RSS format enables learners to avail themselves
of the functionality provided by RSS reader tools. These two examples indicate that using the
OpenLearn schema can be of value to both educators and learners.

الوقت من ذهب

اذكر الله


المصحف الالكتروني