د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B6

provided. Recent definitions of feedback acknowledge that there are many methods for
providing feedback, not all of which are equally effective in terms of contributing to student
learning. Moreover, feedback does not necessarily have to come from an external source, but
could also come from the learner, which makes it part of the process of self-regulation.
Because the term feedback includes the word ―back,‖ it suggests that the process is
retroactive. However, in the literature, a distinction is often made between various aspects that
constitute good feedback (Hattie & Timperley, 2007): Feed Up (where am I going?), Feed
Back (how am I going?), and Feed Forward (where to next?).
Some forms of feedback include only the Feed Back aspect, which indicates a level
related to a particular goal or standard, such as a grade or a judgement relating to the
correctness of answers to items. However, for feedback to function formatively, it is essential
that it provide directions for future learning, such as by indicating strengths and weaknesses,
providing explanations, and suggesting next steps to take in the learning process.
1.2.1 Feedback Provided to Students
Feedback provided to students can help reduce the distance between the current and
intended learning outcomes (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Although ―there is no best way to
provide feedback for all learners and learning outcomes‖ (Shute, 2008, p. 182), it is possible
to identify methods for providing feedback that are generally more effective than others are.
However, it must be mentioned that the effects of feedback depend on many factors.
Examples are the complexity of the task, the current level and motivational characteristics of
the learner. The contents and quality of the feedback can also play an important role (Shute,
2008; Timmers, 2013).
Different responses can occur whenever a student receives feedback. In the ideal
situation, the student accepts the feedback and uses it to steer further learning. On the
contrary, students might reject or ignore the feedback, which means the feedback will not be
used. Another option is that students negotiate feedback, only partly agreeing with the given
comments (Stobart, 2008). In order for feedback to be useful and effective for learning, at
least three conditions have to be met:
 The learner needs the feedback
 The learner receives the feedback and has time to use it
 The learner is willing and is able to use the feedback
Various categorisations of methods for providing feedback are reported in the
literature. However, in order to compare the effects of feedback, a clear classification is
needed. In this dissertation, we use the classifications that are currently most widespread in
the educational literature and combine the classifications used within two important review
studies (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). A distinction is made between feedback
types (Shute, 2008), feedback levels (Hattie & Timperley, 2007), and feedback timing (Shute,
2008). This classification focuses on item-based feedback and relates specifically to a
student‘s response to an item on a test, instead of the total score achieved on a test, for
example.

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