د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B9


Figure 1.1. Types of feedback (Shute, 2008) linked to levels of feedback (Hattie &



Timperley, 2007) and timing (Shute, 2008).
1.2.2 Feedback Provided to Educators
Many tests, such as those given in pupil-monitoring systems, provide users with
feedback about pupil performance in the form of a score report at the levels of the individual
pupil, class, or school. This is called data feedback. Reports often fulfil a summative function,
which means that they provide information regarding the attainment of a certain level or
standard. However, when the data feedback is intended to inform learning, it is considered to
serve a formative purpose.
Feedback level and content. The feedback in score reports relates to one or multiple
test-taking moments, and the level at which the results are reported is usually quite general.
This is possibly because most reports have generated feedback regarding student learning in
large-scale assessment programs (e.g., National Assessment of Educational Progress in
Hambleton & Slater, 1997). For example, overall scores are often reported in terms of
percentile rankings, number of correct scores, and IRT-scaled scores (Goodman &
Hambleton, 2004). However, some tests provide subscores that allow for a detailed
examination of student performance. Assessment reports have frequently been criticised as
presenting too much information in a way that is hard for users to interpret (e.g., Goodman &
Hambleton, 2004; McMillan, 2001). For a report to be interpretable, it needs to focus on a
limited number of purposes, and the information must be displayed clearly and in an
uncluttered manner (Goodman & Hambleton, 2004). Various strategies can be used to support
the interpretation of the information in the reports, such as providing marks or comparing a
student‘s or group‘s performance using anchor points, performance standards, market-basket
displays, and benchmarks (Jaeger, 2003; Mislevy, 1998). These help the user to understand
the test results in terms of both content-referenced and criterion-referenced interpretations
(Zenisky & Hambleton, 2012). In addition, providing both graphical representations and
numerical information, in either tables or graphs, or a combination of both, can support the
interpretation.


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