د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B11

2002). However, if they are constructed and implemented adequately, CBAs also have
pedagogical advantages (Jodoin, 2003). The pedagogical advantages that apply to both
assessments with a summative and formative function are as follows:
 The possibility of quick feedback about student performance (Charman, 1999)
 Flexibility with regard to the location and time the assessment is taken (Charman,
1999; Kearney, Fletcher, & Bartlett, 2002)
 The opportunity to use innovative item types, which allows for more authentic
measurements (Parshall et al., 2002; Scalise & Gifford, 2006)
 The possibility of adapting the difficulty of the items in the test to the ability of the
students, namely computerized adaptive testing, also known as CAT (Wainer, 2000).
In assessments with a formative purpose, the advantages of CBA are mainly related to
the timing and speed of automatically generated (elaborated) feedback (Clements, 1998) and
the flexibility of the tests in terms of item selection. The fact that immediate feedback can be
provided to students while they are taking the test could lead to higher learning outcomes. As
in the one-to-one tutoring situation, which is claimed to be the most effective form of
instruction (Bloom, 1984), feedback in CBA can serve to resolve immediately the gap
between the student‘s current status in the learning process and the intended learning outcome
(Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Moreover, this feedback can be provided to each test taker, based
on their particular response to an item. This would be unimaginable in a classroom with one
teacher and 30 pupils. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that feedback provided to
students through computers, as opposed to humans, shows particularly large effects on student
learning (e.g., Hattie, 1999; Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). This then may relate to the frequency
and timing of feedback; moreover, the feedback provided by the computer may be less
threatening than feedback provided by the teacher (Blok, Oostdam, Otter, & Overmaat, 2002).
1.3.2 Computer-based Reporting
If data derived from assessment are used to inform decisions within the school, it is of
utmost importance to analyse these data for observing trends or patterns within or across
groups of pupils. Assessment data can be very informative in analysing the performance of
individual pupils over a certain time span. The analysis of students‘ learning outcomes is an
important aspect of DBDM, in which high-quality data from standardised tests are often used
to support decision-making processes (Schildkamp & Kuiper, 2010). However, paper-based
reports of such large-scale assessment programmes have not appeared very helpful for those
purposes. Moreover, these data have been typified as ―autopsy data,‖ because of their late
availability, lack of instructional relevance, as well as the impossibility of performing
additional analyses on the data (Mandinach & Jackson, 2012). Computer-based reporting can
possibly help overcome such problems.
Numerous statistical packages are available, which support the analysis of assessment
data. However, the degree to which educators are capable of correctly analysing and
subsequently interpreting data using such systems is questionable. Numerous studies have
suggested that school staff currently lack the knowledge and skills that are needed to use data
to improve the quality of education (Earl & Fullan, 2003; Kerr, Marsch, Ikemoio, Darilek, &

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