د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B16

Stobart, 2008) show that feedback does not always contribute positively to the learning
process, which emphasises the need for further research on this topic.
With respect to the effects of feedback in a CBA for learning, the results from the
literature are mixed. Various authors have reported positive effects on students‘ learning
outcomes as a result of certain methods of providing feedback (Corbalan, Paas, & Cuypers,
2010; Lee, Lim, & Grabowski, 2010; Smits, Boon, & Sluijsmans, 2008; Wang, 2011). In
other studies, no effects were found (Clariana & Lee, 2001; Corbalan, Kester, & van
Merriënboer, 2009; Gordijn & Nijhof, 2002; Kopp, Stark, & Fischer, 2008). The results of
these studies indicate that the characteristics of the feedback intervention and the intended
level of learning outcomes are relevant aspects that must be taken into account when
examining the effects of CBA feedback on students‘ learning outcomes. Besides, other
variables, such as student‘s attitudes and motivation, play important roles.
2.1.2 Characteristics of Feedback
Based on a literature study, different types of written feedback in a CBA were
distinguished. In her review study, Shute (2008) suggests making a distinction between
feedback type and feedback timing. With regard to feedback types, she makes a distinction
based on the specificity and complexity and length of the feedback. Shute describes
knowledge of results (KR) as a relatively low-complexity type of feedback; it only states
whether the answer is correct or incorrect. A type of feedback with a higher complexity is
knowledge of correct response (KCR); this means the correct response is given whenever the
answer is incorrect. A much more complex form of feedback is elaborated feedback (EF);
however, the degree of elaboration in various studies strongly differs (Shute, 2008). Examples
of EF are an explanation of the correct answer, a worked-out solution or a reference to study
material.
Furthermore, the timing of feedback plays an important role. Shute (2008)
distinguishes immediate and delayed feedback. Immediate feedback is (usually) provided
immediately after answering each item. The definition of delayed is more difficult to make,
since the degree of delay can vary. In some cases, the feedback is delayed until a block of
items has been completed. Delayed feedback could also mean feedback is provided after the
student has completed the entire assessment. However, feedback can also be provided an
entire day after completion of the assessment or even later. Mory (2004) points out that the
claims made with regard to the effects of immediate and delayed feedback vary widely. This
variation is, however, strengthened by the fact that the definitions for immediate and delayed
feedback vary widely. In the current study, immediate feedback is defined as feedback given
immediately after completion of an item and delayed feedback is defined as feedback given
directly after completion of all the items in the assessment

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