د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B18

2.1.3 Feedback and Learning
Learning outcomes are the outcomes of the learning process in which the student
executed particular tasks (Smith & Ragan, 2005). Even though the effects of various feedback
interventions on learning have been investigated to a large extent (e.g., Hattie & Timperley,
2007; Shute, 2008), there is no univocal evidence available due to conflicting results (Kluger
& DeNisi, 1996; Shute, 2008). As shown in Figure 2.1, feedback interventions can be
classified by type, level, and timing.
The characteristics of the feedback intervention determine to a great extent the
effectiveness of the feedback. For example, Clariana, Wagner, and Murphy (2000) reported
higher retention and recognition levels for students who received delayed KCR than for
students who received immediate KCR or immediate KR with the option to try to solve the
item again. This outcome suggests that both the type and timing of the feedback influence the
degree to which it affects learning. Lee et al. (2010) compared the effects of immediate EF in
the form of metacognitive feedback (at the task and regulation levels) with the effects of
immediate KR. They found that EF was more effective than KR both for comprehension and
recall tasks, which suggests that the type and level of feedback determine if the feedback is
effective.
Besides the characteristics of the feedback, one needs to take various other variables
into account that influence the relationship between feedback and learning. Stobart (2008)
states that three conditions have to be met in order for feedback to be effective and useful: 1)
The learner needs the feedback, 2) the learner receives the feedback and has time to use it and
3) the learner is willing and able to use the feedback. Regarding the first, students need
feedback if there is a gap between the current understanding and the goal (Hattie &
Timperley, 2007). This implies that if there is no gap, students feel no need to receive
feedback. Moreover, Timmers and Veldkamp (2011) showed that it cannot be assumed that
all students pay equal attention to feedback provided in a CBA for learning. One aspect that
influences attention paid to feedback is the correctness of the answer, with more attention paid
to feedback for incorrectly answered items (Timmers & Veldkamp, 2011). Furthermore, their
results suggest that with an increase in test length, the willingness to pay attention to feedback
decreases. These findings are in line with Stobart‘s (2008) claim and suggest that the
interaction between the difficulty of the item, length of the assessment, and characteristics of
the learner determine the amount of attention paid to the feedback, and subsequently the
feedback‘s effect. But, as Stobart points out, the willingness and ability of the student to
actually use the feedback also plays an important role. The willingness to use feedback is
related to students‘ motivation, which many authors have recognised as an important variable
in relation to feedback (see Azevedo & Bernard, 1995; Keller, 1983; Mory, 2004).
Additionally, students should be provided enough resources to improve their learning. If, for
example, the feedback refers to a source not available to students, they will not be able to use
the feedback (Stobart, 2008). Also, the feedback should be presented clearly, with as little
distracting information as possible, in order to make it possible for stud

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