د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B28

Hypothesis 3: Student characteristics (attitude, motivation) are positively related to time
spent on feedback.
A two-tailed Pearson correlation analysis was performed in order to investigate the
relationship between students‘ attitudes towards CBAs for learning and time spent reading
feedback. The relationship was found to be moderately positive and significant at α = .01,
r(150) = .32, p < .01. Also, a correlation analysis was performed concerning study motivation
and time spent reading feedback. The relationship was slightly positive but significant, r(150)
= .20, p < .05. These outcomes show that both students‘ attitudes and motivation were related
to the time spent reading feedback, which implies Hypothesis 3 was not rejected.
2.4 Discussion
In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different types
of written feedback in a computer-based assessment for learning on students‘ learning
outcomes. Students were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups and were all
subjected to an assessment for learning, summative assessment, and questionnaire. The
contents of the assessments were identical for all groups, except for the feedback in the
assessment for learning. The effects of immediate KCR + EF (Group 1), delayed KCR + EF
(Group 2), and delayed KR (Group 3) were compared.
We had hypothesised that students in Groups 1 and 2 would score significantly higher
on the summative assessment than would students in Group 3 when controlled for the
influence of class and score on the assessment for learning (Hypothesis 1). This hypothesis
was rejected. A two-way ANCOVA of group and class was used to investigate the effects on
proportion correct of the summative assessment, controlling for the achievement on the
assessment for learning. No significant effect of the feedback condition on student
achievement regarding the summative assessment was found.
Even though no significant effects were found between one feedback condition and
another, the results of this study do give a clear indication of the type of feedback students
perceive to be most useful for learning. Student responses on the questionnaires indicate that
students perceive KCR + EF (immediate and delayed) to be more useful for learning than KR
only. Furthermore, the results suggests that students prefer immediate feedback to delayed
feedback. From the results of the questionnaire, it can be concluded that students perceive
immediate KCR + EF to be most useful for learning. Also, students have a more positive
attitude towards feedback in a CBA when they receive KCR + EF rather than KR only.
The claims that are made with regard to the effects of immediate and delayed feedback
vary widely (Mory, 2004). Even though no effects on the learning outcomes were found with
regard to the effectiveness of immediate or delayed feedback, the results from the time log
confirm that the timing of feedback is an important aspect to take into account. It was
expected that students in Group 3 would spend less time reading the feedback than would
students in Groups 1 and 2 (Hypothesis 2). This hypothesis was rejected. Students in Group 1
spent more time reading the feedback in the assessment for learning than did students in
Group 3. No difference was found between Groups 2 and 3 concerning the time spent reading
feedback. This outcome is remarkable because while the content of the feedback for Groups 1
and 2 was identical, the feedback for Group 3 was much shorter and less complex and would

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