د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book p3

Chapter 3
48
3.1. Introduction
The effects of feedback on learning have been investigated to a large extent (e.g.,
Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Mory, 2004; Shute, 2008). However, the literature conveys
conflicting results (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996; Shute, 2008). More specifically, there is not much
evidence concerning which feedback interventions might positively affect student learning in
a computer-based environment. These environments make it possible to deliver individualized
feedback in a timely manner, which is generally claimed to positively influence the learning
process. Integrating assessment into the learning process is one of the main features of the
assessment for learning approach (for more information, see Stobart, 2008). To date, no
systematic reviews have been published that investigate the effectiveness of written feedback
in a computer-based assessment (CBA) for learning. The purpose of this study is to
investigate the effectiveness of different methods for providing feedback in a CBA as well as
to identify gaps in current knowledge on this topic.
3.1.1 Computer-Based Assessment for Learning
Computer-based assessment (CBA) has increased in popularity in the preceding years.
CBA has some advantages over traditional paper-and-pencil tests, such as higher test
efficiency, automated scoring, and the possibility of adapting the item difficulty to the ability
of the students. However, not only does CBA have practical advantages, the literature
suggests that CBAs can have valuable pedagogical advantages when used for formative
purposes. Namely, it is possible to provide the test taker with feedback through the computer.
The way this feedback is provided can vary from simply telling the test taker that the answer
is wrong to providing an extensive explanation regarding the learning content which is
assessed by the item. Stobart (2008) states that in assessment for learning, feedback ―is seen
as the key to moving learning forward‖ (p. 144). Thus, CBA makes it possible to deliver
feedback to students while they are taking the test. It is claimed that this has a positive effect
on students‘ learning outcomes because their discrepancies between their current
understanding and the goal can immediately be resolved (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).
3.1.2 Ways of Providing Feedback
Hattie and Timperley (2007) define feedback as ―information provided by an agent
(e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one‘s performance or
understanding‖ (p. 81). The primary aim of providing students with feedback is to close the
gap between their current status in the learning process and the intended learning outcomes.
Furthermore, feedback can provide students with insight into their own learning process and
thereby support learning. However, there are many possible ways of providing feedback, not
all of which have a positive effect on the learning outcomes of students (Stobart, 2008). In
this study, we classified feedback based on types (Shute, 2008), levels (Hattie & Timperley,
2007), and timing (Shute, 2008).
Shute (2008) classified different types of feedback based on specificity, complexity,
and length. For example, knowledge of results (KR) is a low-complex type of feedback: The
student is merely told whether the answer is correct or incorrect. The correct answer is not
provided. Knowledge of correct response (KCR) is a type of feedback in which the student is

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